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Electroluminescent Lighting

  • Organic compound
  • low running cost
  • low power consumption 
  • ideal for subtle back lighting 
  • can form high impact images
  • can appear animated
  •  water proof
  • can be sandwiched together or produced as wire or strips. 
  • has colour limitations
  • high cost to initially set up
  • low tech compared to LCD's
  • background effects only
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Smart Ink

  • used in electronic books
  • a pixel is a tiny pit containing a number of black and white beads which are charged positively and negativel. each pit has a transparent electrode on top and two at its base. 
  • altering the charge on the base electrodes makes either the white or black beadl leap to the top of the pit forming either a blank or black spot on the large display. 
  • electronic paper was developed to overcome limitations of computer monitors 
  • lightweight
  • durable
  • flexible 
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Piezoelectric Crystals

  • piezoelectric crystal converts mechanical stress or vibration into electrical vibrations. 
  • expands and contracts when an electric current is applied. 
  • used in musical greetings cards 
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Thermochromic Liquid Crystals

  • used in forehead thermometres, battery test panels and special printing effects. 
  • a layer of conductive ink is screen printed on to the reverse of the thermometer strip - this makes contact with the forehead. ontop of the conductive bar is a layer of normal ink that conveys the temperature gauge colour bar. then there is a thermochromic which is black in colour when cool. 
  • by pressing the bar on the forehead the temperature generated turns the thermochromic ink translucent - revealing the temperature gauge colour bars.
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Phosphorescent Pigments

  • absorbs energy or 'charge' in normal daytime conditions and are capable of storing that energy for some time, then releasing it slowly in the form of light 
  • non radioactive materials 
  • can be manufactured into paints or inks to make safety signage and watch faces that can be seen in complete darkness. 
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Radio Frequency Identification

  • RFID is a method of identification that uses tags stuck on to a product to store data that can be retrived by a reader. 
  • RFID technology is based on the transmission and reception of radio frequency (RF) signals between a transmiter and a responder/tag attatched to a product. 

This method is often used to track products from the manufacturer to the retailer. 

It also has applications in libraries, a tag is used on a book to identify the book and lender and isuseful as a security measure to stop books from being stolen. 

RFIDs can also be used in livestock management. 

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