Short term causes of the 1905 Revolution


Peasant Unrest

  • Peasants were forced to pay redemption payments which drained them of the little money they had so this did not allow them to afford crops to grow food- leading to food shortages
  • Agri. equipment was outdated which exacerbated this situation- it didn't allow food to grow to feed the growing population
  • Shortages contributed to the inflation crisis Russia was experiencing
  • Peasants were extremely unhappy at the Tsar and his lack of reform and contributed to the protests that helped lead to the start of the 1905 Revolution
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Industrial Unrest

  • Workers had poor working conditions in their factories
  • Demanded improvement and reform but it did not come
  • Due to the economic downfall eg inflation they suffered increasingly worse wages which also angered them
  • Trade unions were also non-existent so workers couldn't trade which made them even angrier at the Tsarist regime
  • At their upmost of anger they too contributed to the protests about lack of reform alongside the peasants in the 1905 Revolution
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Liberal Unrest

  • Opposition of Kadets and Octobrists- upset at lack of reform
  • They too contributed the protests of the Revolution
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Russo-Japanese War 1904-05

  • Russia entered war with Japan in 1904 thinking they could get an easy victory
  • They lost and were humiliated
  • Once the news of this rang back home in Russia people were now so angry with the Tsar and the protests grew
  • Financing of the war also backfired and made worse the food shortages and inflation
  • People were now at their zenith of anger towards the Tsar and they too contributed to the protests of the Revolution
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Reaction to Bloody Sunday

  • On 22nd January 1905 at the Winter Palace, a series of protests which effectively started the Revolution was led by Fr. Georgi Gapon with peasants, worker and liberals
  • Nicholas II was expected to control these protests but due to his unimaginative nature, he was not present at the Winter Palace
  • Many were let down by this and this damaged the Tsar's image as "Little Father"- protector of the Russian people
  • Things got worse as 200 marchers were killed by police protests- this was called on by the Tsar himself and so he essentially was killing his own citizens
  • "There is no God, there is no Tsar!"- Gapon
  • This act only caused things to get worse- Bloody Sunday was a gate that opened and led to the 1905 Revolution throughout Russia
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Political Backwardness

  • Unlike other European countries, Russia was massive in size, however the other countries were so much more economically, financially, socially and technologically advanced
  • Also they didn't grant social or economic reforms demanded by peasants or workers and so this is another reason why they protested towards the regime causing the Revolution
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