Russia 1905 Revolution
Lasted predominately from September - October.
1904 Russo-Japanese War; humiliating defeats.
The japanese opened hostilities at Port Arthur, opening fire.
- Battle of Mukden 20th Feb 1905 - Land battle - Extremely decisive for the Japanese - resulted in Russian retreat and over 90,000 dead
- Battle of Tsushima - May 1905 - Sea battle - The japanese ambushed the Russian forces, taking them by surprise. They completely anhilated their forces, resulting in the loss of eight battleships and almost 5000 men. The Russian's were forced into a peace shortly after.
The severity of defeats like these led to a lowering of morale and an undermining of Nicholas 2's power.
Bloody Sunday; 19th Jan, 1905
- Father Gapon led a peaceful march on the Winter Palace on the workers conditions.
- Gunned down by Cossacks (Armed forces) on Nicholas 2nd's orders.
- Casualties of around 1,000
This led to striking across Russia of 2.7 mil people. Also led to formation of Soviet in St Peters. which organised strikes (Mainly Menshevik)
- Overcrowding in towns and cities.
- High taxes and redemption payments
- Growth of opposition due to Nicholas 2's support of his father's autocracy
The October Manifesto was passed.
- Promised concessions to appease the Russian people
- August - Announced the formation of a Duma - but it had little to no power so did not please the people.
- 17th October - October Manifesto: Brought freedom of speech, religion, the press and a Duma with power
- November - The second manifesto promised to improve the peasant's Land Bank and abolish redemption payments.
- It worked in appeasing the people - strikes were called off + December uprising easily crushed.
- This whole ordeal strengthened the Tsar's position as it split the opposition between the liberals, who accepted the manifesto and the radicals who didn't.