Why did Russia have a Revolution in 1905?

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  • Why was there a Revolution in 1905?
    • Long-term causes
      • Peasants were desperate due to high taxes and redemption payments
        • Witte's economic policies squeezed the peasants hard
      • There was not enough food and famine was common
        • There were poor harvests in 1900 and 1902
      • Despite the Okhrana's best efforts, political parties were on the rise
        • Nicholas II was committed to autocracy
      • Town and cities were growing but sanitation was poor
      • Nicholas II was committed to autocracy
      • National minorities felt alienated
        • The controversial policy of Russification was causing tension
    • Short-term causes
      • The Russo-Japanese War of 1904/5
        • Russia suffered severe and humiliating military losses e.g. Port Arthur: Jan. 1905
        • Food and fuel shortages!
        • High prices and unemployment!
      • Bloody Sunday: January 1905
        • 150,000 workers attended a peaceful march to the Winter Palace
          • Fair wages and an eight hour day!
          • An end to the war with Japan!
          • The election of a national parliament!


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