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Nicholas' character





































Political opposition

1897: General Union of Jewish Workers in Russia and Poland established in response to the
discrimination from `Russification' policies. It helped Jews become prominent members in later
revolutionary parties (Trotsky and Martov both Jews).

1898: The first congress of Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party held in…

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a different path to freedom. The working classes were still be




ing exploited and they felt that the future of Russia would be the
product of a class struggle. Change had to come from working men but the meeting was broken up
by the Okhrana.

1899: Populist ideas resurfaced but…

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There was demonstrations in St Petersburg where mounted Cossacks charged into crowds of
students, killing 13 people, which only fueled their radicalism. 1,500 Students were imprisoned in
the Peter and Paul fortress.

1903: The second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party was held in Brussels
and then moved…

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The Union of Liberation formed which called for a constitutional monarchy.
Moscow City Duma passed a resolution demanding an elected national legislature, freedom of the
press and freedom of religion.

Left wing opposition Right wing opposition

Socialist Revolutionaries, founded by Chernov in The Octobrists, founded 1905 by Guchkov and
1902,…

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this programme helped spur the 1905 revolution because it created new classes that aggravated
social tensions.
Industrial workers began to feel dissatisfaction with the Tsarist government despite the protective
to laws that the government had decreed. Some of those laws included the prohibition of children
under 12 from working with…

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by the end of 1903.





· By the end of January 1905, over 400,000 workers in Russian Poland were on strike.
· Half of European Russia's industrial workers went on strike in 1905, 93.2% in Poland.
· There were also strikes in Finland and the Baltic coast.
· In Riga…

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what struck western European industry. This exacerbated discontent throughout society in the
five years preceding the 1905 Revolution.
· Nobles who found themselves in debt either mortgaged their estates to the noble land bank or
sold their land to municipalities, merchants, or peasants. The nobility had sold off one-third of…

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· After discussions broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy attacked the Russian eastern fleet at
Port Arthur, a naval base in the Liaotung province leased to Russia by China, which led to war.
· The Russians aimed to reinforce their Far East Fleet by sending the Baltic Fleet under…

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`Russia had half a constitution" - Bernard Pares
"1905 had changed society for good" - Orlando Figes
"The humiliation of the defeat by the Japanese left the army and navy demoralised" - Orlando Figes

The primary result of the Revolution of 1905 is the Tsar made last effort attempts to…

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Explain why revolution broke out in Russia in 1905. (12 marks)
Poin Evidence Explanation
t
Russ 1904 ­ 1905 Russia and Japan went to war over control The Russo-Japanese war was one of
o­ of N.China and Korea the main issues causing the 1905
Japa Russia faced defeats in Manchuria…

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