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The working classes were still be
ing exploited and they felt that the future of Russia would be the
product of a class struggle. Change had to come from working men but the meeting was broken up
by the Okhrana.
1899: Populist ideas resurfaced but they were mainly revived in universities with several outbreaks
of disorder.
1901: Assassination, by Pyotr Karpovich, of N.P Bogolepov (Minister for Education).…read more

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There was demonstrations in St Petersburg where mounted Cossacks charged into crowds of
students, killing 13 people, which only fueled their radicalism. 1,500 Students were imprisoned in
the Peter and Paul fortress.
1903: The second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party was held in Brussels
and then moved to Shoreditch in London.
Lenin: Believed in a strong disciplined organisation of professional revolutionaries to lead the
proletariat, he desired dedication.…read more

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The Union of Liberation formed which called for a constitutional monarchy.
Moscow City Duma passed a resolution demanding an elected national legislature, freedom of the
press and freedom of religion.
Left wing opposition Right wing opposition
Socialist Revolutionaries, founded by Chernov in The Octobrists, founded 1905 by Guchkov and
1902, favoured political assassination. Rodzianko, accepted the October Manifesto.
The Bolshevik Party, founded by Lenin in 1903, Union of the Russian People, formed 1905,
`appropriated' funds from banks supported the autocracy, instigated pogroms.…read more

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Industrial workers began to feel dissatisfaction with the Tsarist government despite the protective
to laws that the government had decreed.…read more

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· By the end of January 1905, over 400,000 workers in Russian Poland were on strike.
· Half of European Russia's industrial workers went on strike in 1905, 93.2% in Poland.
· There were also strikes in Finland and the Baltic coast.
· In Riga (Latvia) 80 protesters were killed on 26 January 1905, and in Warsaw a few days later,over
100 strikers were shot on the streets.
· By February, there were strikes in the Caucasus, and by April, in the Urals and beyond.…read more

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European industry. This exacerbated discontent throughout society in the
five years preceding the 1905 Revolution.
· Nobles who found themselves in debt either mortgaged their estates to the noble land bank or
sold their land to municipalities, merchants, or peasants. The nobility had sold off one-third of its
land holding and mortgaged the third that remained. The peasants had become emancipated
from serfdom.The government had hoped to make them a politically conservative land holding
class.…read more

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After discussions broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy attacked the Russian eastern fleet at
Port Arthur, a naval base in the Liaotung province leased to Russia by China, which led to war.
· The Russians aimed to reinforce their Far East Fleet by sending the Baltic Fleet under the
command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. The squadron departed in September 1904 and
sailed half way around the world from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific via the Cape of Good Hope.…read more

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Russia had half a constitution" - Bernard Pares
"1905 had changed society for good" - Orlando Figes
"The humiliation of the defeat by the Japanese left the army and navy demoralised" - Orlando Figes
The primary result of the Revolution of 1905 is the Tsar made last effort attempts to keep his
regime from being eradicated, and offered reforms similar to most rulers when pressured by a
revolutionary movement.…read more

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Explain why revolution broke out in Russia in 1905. (12 marks)
Poin Evidence Explanation
Russ 1904 ­ 1905 Russia and Japan went to war over control The Russo-Japanese war was one of
o­ of N.China and Korea the main issues causing the 1905
Japa Russia faced defeats in Manchuria and the Port Arthur Revolution.…read more


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