RIII

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 09-05-13 16:11

PRINCES IN THE TOWER- WHO?

Buckingham

  • changed sides, Oct 1483- rebelled
  • Dad & Grandpa killed by Yorkists
  • Kingmaker
  • Put himself on the throne
  • Remove RIII & then HVII
  • power hungry- married daughter to RIII's son
  • RIII denied son Prince of Wales & control Bohun lands
  • weak claim
  • Blacken RIII's name & overthrow him
1 of 20

PRINCES IN THE TOWER- HEN TUDOR

Hen Tudor

  • great grandson EIII- weak claim
  • remove rival claimants make claim stronger- imprisoned Warwick
  • grandma had affair= illigitemate
  • anti-yorkist propoganda
  • paranoid if alive= usurpation
  • claim stronger if dead
  • RIII dead- Acts of Attainder 'shedding of infants blood'
2 of 20

PRINCES IN THE TOWER- RIII

RIII

  • prime suspect
  • failed to show them alive when rumours
  • strong motive- prevent usurpation
  • Thomas More- order given by RIII to kill them
  • Ordered Sir James Tyrell (amibitious) 2 men carry out murder- pillows
  • next in line of succession 
  • instruct sent Southampton, Windsor & York repress and punish rumour spreaders
3 of 20

RIII Becoming King

  • EIV= dead 2 sons (minors)
  • 2 wills= confusion- 1= Eliz Wood 1/8 rule on regency counsel. 2 RIII= protector remove ELIZ (1475)
  • competing factions- Woodville + Gloucester- threatened political exclusion & ruin
  • Woods= advantage EV with Earl Rivers- guard, armed retinue & troops
  • R= less, Middleham Castle Yorkshire- Buck & Hastings both enemey W's
  • Counsel met, 'suspicion & fear'
  • Dominic Mancini (ital clerk) note 1 side R=protector, 1 side Counsel with RIII in
  • Disputed size of escort to LDN
4 of 20

RIII Background

Childhood

  • dominated by civil war
  • 1461- EIV made R Gloucester
  • Warwick rewarded, tutor RIII. Learnt estate management, politics war, met Anne Nevill, Lovell
  • Warwick rebel, alliance with Lanc 1470 EIV lost crown til 1471
  • RIII knew W's fight methods defeat him
  • RIII  1st military command- Battle of Barnet Tewkesbury
5 of 20

ELIZABETH WOODVILLE

  • EIV marry 1464- secretly
  • didn't tell Hastings/Warwick- problems
  • EIV arrange marriage Bona of Savoy (france)
  • Woodvilles= social climbers, resented (R, Buck, Hast)
  • EV brought up by Woods- more Woodville than York?
  • 1483, W's knew unpopular
6 of 20

EV- How it happened

  • W's left Ludlow 24th April (no hurry)
  • Rivers met RIII- move south enter LDN together
  • 30th April STONY STRATFORD, Buck join
  • Buck & R remain, talk next move. FIRST ACTION AGAINST W's
  • 31st April Rivers arrested, imprisoned R castle North
  • Rivers executed Pontefract castle
  • Eliz- sanctuary with R& EV
  • 4th Mary, Counsel confirm R as protector
  • Coronation- 22nd June
  • Parliament- 25th June
7 of 20

Buck's Rewards

  • power in west & welsh marshes
  • right raise troops 5 counties
  • titles- Chief Justice, Chamberlain, North and South Wales
  • Hastings and council member distrust this- EIV warned Buck threat, exclude serious roles
8 of 20

BUCKINGHAM REBELLION OCTOBER 1483- WHY

1. Personal gain & greed- disappointed rewards from R, wanted control Bohun Lands & son Prince of Wales (made own son it instead) ANGERED

2. Kingmaker- helped R become king now help HVII. Stony Stratford @ inn 30th April, first plot against W's. Rivs arrested 31st. HELP HVII- influenced by John Morton (spoke HVII)

3. Princes in Tower- genuine crisis in own conscience CROWLAND CHRONICKER, about deaths. Join HVII

9 of 20

BUCK REBELLION OCT 1483- WHAT

  • series revolts yorkist households, John Morton linked B to Marg Beaufort H's Mum)
  • start south-east 11th October, Kent- Sussex- Surrey. Duke of Norfolk contain rebels, control bridge over River Thams, Gravesend 
  • rebel armies- Cornwall & Devon lead Thomas Grey
  • RIII contained rebels south-east, army march Wiltshire rebels scatter
  • Tudor await Plymouth, B execute return Brittany
  • Buck plan uprise from power base South Wales, depart Castle in Brecon- march Forest of Dean (hope join Cornwall & Devon). RIVER SEVERN FLOODED, STAFFORD destroyed bridgesBuck fled Flanders, exectued early November
10 of 20

BUCK REBELLION OCT 1483- OUTCOMES

  • Tudor= credible rival- Yorkist replacement of princes
  • Christmas day 1483- promise marry Elizabeth of York when crowned king
  • Buck= kingmaker
11 of 20

BUCK REBELLION OCT 1483- Limitations

  • B= unpopular Wales, no north support (loyal R- Duke Gloucester)
  • River Severn flooded, Stafford destroy bridges
  • support dwindled
  • B= EXCEUTED EARLY NOVEMBER
12 of 20

BUCK REBELLION OCT 1483- threats

  • B= kingmaker
  • use against R
  • loyal noble- defected
  • ringleader- influenced others
  • had close relations known rebels
  • Hen= credible rival
13 of 20

HENRY TUDOR- THREAT

  • Mum= Margarent Beaufort- married Lord Stanley= powerful, influence opinions, family connections Courtaneys (LANC)= support from Ed Courtaney
  • HVII forced flee brittany, King's court Charles VIII- 60,000 francs & 1,800 french mercenaries Phillibert de Chandee
  • lawyer- Morgan Kidwelly told H Rhys Ap Thomas & Sir John Savage back him
  • Public promise marry Eliz York (xmas 1483), won support disaffected royal servants in uk, unite houses
  • Daubeney, Willoughby join H in exile Britt
  • 1484-5 cross channel gain H support
  • uprisings= frequent
14 of 20

RIII- Parliament

  • 1 parliament delayed Jan 1484 (B rebel)
  • Titulus Regius- proclaim princes illigitemacy, king custom revenues, Acts of Attaingder (97), 21 private acts, inheritance claims
  • 1. Enoffements- protect land purchase rights
  • 2. Allows bail suspects of felony- prevent forfeit goods, maintain famrs etc
  • solve problems Courts of Justice- reinforced 1478- penalties against misbehavour officials, protect defendants
  • made benovelances illegal- popular approval
  • condemn use of secret fines, protect rights of purchasers of land
  • prevent commerical dishonesty- cloth trade

Historians- Bacon= good/positive laws

15 of 20

Reasons For Parliament

1. Title to throne publically declared

2. Parliamentry authority: attaint rebels, legalise arbitrary procedures, rebel lands

3. Reform legislation- publicise beneficient intentions as king- permit private acts

16 of 20

RIII- Insecurity as King

  • threat Hen, great Grandson EIII- Dughbeney & Willoughby join court in exile. 1484-5 cross channel raise support for H, Mum= Marg Beaufort marry Stan- powerful
  • Prince sin Tower conspiracy, rumours and murder, villainous- instructed Southhampton, Windsor & York punish and repress rumour spreaders
  • Death of young son and only heir, Ed Middleham died 1484 (10). No secure succession, no secure dynasty
17 of 20

WHY RICHARD MADE HIMSELF KING

  • Genuine interest in UK security. E&R= minors. RII usurp by cousin Hen Bolingbroke 1377, protect Yorkist claim and secure realm
  • 2 competing factions, 2 wills confusion. E=more Woodville threatnened. Woodvilles come to assert, aroogant and scheming. RIII resented Woodvilles
  • Background & personality- villainous, greedy, personal gain. Ch8ild dominated by civial way, taught by Warwick rebelled 1470
18 of 20

BATTLE OF BOSWORTH- WHAT

  • HVII- Mill Bay- 11 knighted
  • Rhys Ap Thomas- 2,00 men
  • Shrewsbury- Balaifs refuse open fates. Will Stan encouraged
  • Rich Corbert- 800 men
  • Newport, Talbot- 500 men
  • 22nd August 1485
  • R= 10,00 top Ambien Hill. Archers= Duke Norfolk, R=rear troops, Northumberland= reverse
  • Tudor= 5,000. Vanguard= Oxford, 1,800 French mercenaries Phillibert de Chandee
  • R charge down hill, kill Tudor's standard bearer, Cheney= off horse
  • Phillibert= complex manouvere protect HVII
  • Stanley defects with reinue, R= dead
19 of 20

WHY RIII WAS DEFEATED AT BOSWORTH

  • tactics- RIII charge down hill, isolated himself from his army. Lost advantage
  • Nobles defected- Will Stan with retinue against, helped Hen
  • 1,800 German Mercenaries- complex manouvere copied Swiss, protect Hen
  • RIII alienated nobles 
20 of 20

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »