Battles of Bosworth and Stoke comparison

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Numbers rebel ­ 5,000 (incl. 2000 Fr mercenaries) Royal ­ up to circa. 15,000 (only
royal­ 10-15,000 6,000 engaged rebel force)
5-8,000 initially uncommitted rebel ­ circa 8,000 (core of
Pretender outnumbered 2,000 experienced Gn
mercenaries under Schwarz)
Pretender outnumbered
Casualties 1,000 royal Royal ­ possibly just 100
100 rebel Rebel ­ up to 4,000
Earl of Lincoln
German mercenary commander
Lord Lovell? ­ may have escaped
then died
Causes Dislike of RIII Significant senior Yorkists are
Lancastrian claimant who is willing to fight for willing to fight against HVII and
throne support LS
Split of Yorkists Existing claimants with v. strong
French support for HT claim (Lincoln)
RIII not prepared to give up throne Death of RIII pushes Yorkists
Buck. Rebellion ­ shows RIII's control is weak; together
Yorkists split; sends some into exile HVII has not gained the
allegiance of the political nation
(weak claim / has had v. little
time / unknown character due to
absence from Eng.)
Willingness of Anglo-Irish lords
(and Margaret and Maximillian to
interfere) to oppose Henry
Location Central Eng. ­ Leicestershire/Warwickshire East Stoke, Nottinghamshire
Landed in Mill Bay, Pembrokeshire (s. Wales) (middle England)
Go through Wales and Cheshire Landed between n. Wales and
Not close to London Lancashire, go to Staffordshire
Not close to London
Foreign Fr Maximillian and Habsburgs
support (Germany)
Timing 22 August 1485 16th June 1487
Just over 2 yrs into reign Just under 2 yrs into reign
Aims Dynastic Dynastic
HT to take throne LS to take throne?
To get rid of RIII Lincoln to take throne?
Yorkist overthrow
Social Scale Almost exclusively political nation More widespread
Gentry e.g. Rhys ap Thomas ­ RIII relies on them Still largely political nation
HT didn't pick up followers as he went
Military Royals had chosen battle ground Rebels had chosen battle ground

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Tactical brilliance of EoO exploited disastrous Rebels employed new pike
miscalculation by RIII in his battle formation tactics
RIII's charge Location chosen to minimise
Swiss manoeuvre by Fr pikemen immediate tactical opportunities
RIII use of high position at Ambien Hill for enemy
Yorkist rebels at top of ridge
Rebels use crossbowmen
Outcome Rebel victory Royal victory
Death of RIII Lincoln dies
Crowning of HVII HVII retains throne and has won
Certain Yorkists lose influence ­ some flee second battle
Duke of Norfolk killed LS…read more


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