- Created by: Chlouija
- Created on: 16-05-17 19:30
Using the Bible to Make Moral Decisions
- Some believe it is the absolute word of God, containing teachings on how to live, for example the New Testament offers moral guidance.
- The Bible has authority from God about what Christians should believe and how they should live, for example the Ten Commandments and Jesus' teachings.
- Some believe only the Bible can say what is wrong and what is right, because it comes from God so it is the only thing that can be trusted.
The Bible's Authority
- Some believe the Bible is the literal word of God and is totally right, God directly told the authors what to write.
- Some believe the Bible is the word of God, but needs to be interpreted by the Church.
- Some believe the Bible was inspired by God, and gives guidance about how to live, but needs an adaptation to modern society.
How the Church Guides Christians
- Talking to other Christians.
- Listening to the priest or vicar.
- Praying and worshipping together.
- Accepting the authority of the Church to explain and teach God's word.
- Some discuss moral issues in an assembly containing elected members of the Church.
- Some Christians look to the leaders of the Church to make decisions for them, regarding moral issues.
Why Christians Believe the Church has Authority
- The Church is the body of Christ, they should follow the Church teachings as they are the teachings of Jesus.
- God speaks to them through the Church.
- Only the Church has fully understand the Bible, and knows how to interpret and apply its teachings.
- The Church provides rules so everyone knows what they should do.
What is the Conscience
- The inner feeling of what is right or wrong.
- Christians believe it is the voice of God within us.
- Both religious and non-religious peple can be judged for their moral actions.
- It makes us feel guilty if we do things that are wrong.
- Some Christians believe this is the most important guide when making moral decisions.
Christians and Situation Ethics
- Love should be the main factor in making moral decisions.
- A good action aims to do the most loving thing.
- Someone should only follow the rules of the Bible or the Church if it results in the most loving action.
- It is similar to the Golden Rule taught by Jesus, that we should treat others how we wish to be treated.
Reasons FOR Using Situation Ethics
- Every situation is judged individually and fairly.
- Love is the most important principle, so it follows a genuine Christian action.
- Love is an easy principle to apply and remember in all situations.
- Doing the most loving thing appeals to people as a positive outlook.
Reasons AGAINST Using Situation Ethics
- It is impossible to predict what will happen in every example, which is what this requires.
- In theory, 'the most loving thing to do' is subjective and could be anything, such as adultery or murder.
- It is not easy to apply Situation Ethics to cases where we are used to having rules.
- Law and teaching of the Bible.
- Teachings and guidance of the Church.
- The conscience.
- Principles of Situation Ethics.
Why Use Various Moral Authorities
- Christians believe they must live life according to God.
- Some Christians believe different sources of authority contain advice and help on what God wants.
- They may use one source of authority or refer to a combination.
- The different authorities provide guidance on how Christians should live.
The United Nations
The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights states all humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
All UK citizens are entitiled to;
- Free Speech
- Racial/Sexual/Religious Equality
- Health Care
The Human Rights Act
Human Rights Act 1998: Human rights are protected by the law, someone who feels their rights have been infringed can appeal to the European Court of Human Rights.
- This has a positive effect on issues of child prostitution and illegal immigration.
- There is controversy due to human rights being overruled when national security is at risk, in cases such as terrorism.
- Some argue the Human Rights Act allows criminals to get away without proper punishment.
Why Human Rights are Important to Christians
- They believe every human is created by God in his image and deserves respect.
- They believe God loves everyone equally so all should be treated equally.
- The teachings of the Bible, e.g. the Ten Commandments, support most human rights laws.
The Bible and Human Rights
- The Parable of the Sheep and Goats teaches that it is the moral duty of Christians to help people in need.
- Jesus taught the Golden Rule, showing all humans are worthy of value and respect, and human rights are important.
- "Do unto others what you would have done unto you" - Matthew 7:12
- Archbishop Desmond Tutu campaigned against racism and apartheid in South Africa.
Democracy in the UK
- UK is a representative democracy governed by an elected parliament.
- The government makes decisions on how schools are run, healthcare, defence and taxes.
- Every 5 years, theres an election held where people vote for the political party to form the next government.
- Every British citizen over 18 years old has a vote.
The Three Main Political Parties
- Labour Party -
The state should help the poor and provide hospitals and school for all.
- Conservative Party -
The state should encourage people to look after themselves and only provide what people cannot pay for themselves.
- Liberal Democrat Party -
Green issues are important and the government and individuals need to work together to help everyone.
Taking Part in Democracy
- Voting allows citizens to have a say about who runs the country.
- People that are elected are responsible for making important decisions that affect everyone.
- Democracy tackles issues such as taxes, benefits, rubbish collection, health treatment, schools and the armed forces.
- We can write to or meet MPs to discuss issues of concern.
- To lobby means to influence government decisions, this could be through writing letters or taking part in public petitions.
Christian Teachings About Rights and Responsibilit
- The Golden Rule -
States that we should treat others the way we want to be treated.
- The Parable of the Sheep and the Goats -
Jesus taught that God will, at the end, separate his people into those who have helped others (sheep), and those who have not (goats).
- Am I my Brother's Keeper? St Paul -
St Paul taught that Christians should not stand by while others suffer. He uses Cain and Abel as an example, Cain killed his brother Abel then denied that he had anything to do with it, saying it was not his responsibility to care for others.
- The process where the structure and characteristics of genes are changed.
- Genes can be added, replaced or taken away.
- Genes that cause disorders can be improved or removed.
- The UK government has strict guidelines on genetically modified crops.
Possibilities of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic disorders may be cured using gene therapy to replace missing genes.
- Hormones and proteins can be produced, for example insulin for diabetics.
- Genes can be inserted to grow human parts on animals for organ transplants.
- Inherited disorders like cystic fibrosis could be removed from embryos.
- It could be used to grow crops that are resistant to pests and disease, or that grow in harsh climates or on infertile land.
- A clone is an exact copy of something.
- Reproductive cloning is a technology used to create an animal or plant with an identical genetic makeup to another.
- Therapeutic cloning is the cloning of embryos to harvest stem cells, stem cells develop in an embryo.
- Scientists are researching how stem cells can be used to produce cells to help cure illnesses, e.g. Alzheimer's.
Concerns with Genetic Engineering and Cloning
- Nature is complex and we do not know the long-term effects.
- The technology could be dangerous in the wrong hands, they could be used to produce biological weapons.
- There is no guidance on who decides what is defective and what isn't.
- This could lead to 'designer babies', where people want certain characteristics for their children.
Christian Viewpoints FOR Genetic Engineering/Cloni
- God gave humans dominion over the world, so as long as it does not cause harm, then some forms of genetic engineering such as GM crops are acceptable.
- The Golden Rule means the use of genetic engineering to cure disease could be acceptable.
- Jesus healed people and Christians believe they should follow his example, therefore they can use genetic engineering to improve the health of others.
- God gave use the gift of knowledge, and we should use this to develop technology and possibly save human lives.
Christian Viewpoints AGAINST Genetic Engineering/C
- Only God can create life and humans shouldn't interfere.
- Life is sacred and belongs to God, so humans should not be doing anything against this.
- Some believe life beings at conception, so they are opposed to anything that involves research on embryos when some of them are discarded.
- Most are against using genetic engineering to cure 'defects' that don't cause suffering, for example short-sightedness.
Causes of Global Warming
Global Warming: Increase in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere.
- Many believe burning fossil fuels increases greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere.
- Some believe the rise in temperature is natural and the climate has always been in a state of change.
Effects of Global Warming
- In polar regions, the ice melts and increases the sea level, meaning some land may be submerged.
- Some hotter areas suffer drought, and others suffer excessive rain and flooding - resulting in shortages of food and then famine.
- There is an increase of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and flash floods.
- Some animals and plants may die out if they cannot adapt.
Solutions to Global Warming
- Individuals: Turn off electrical appliances when not being used, walk rather than use vehicles, support environmental charities, lobby the government for change.
- Government/Organisations: Set laws for factories to reduce energy, work together to try and reduce energy usage.
- Scientists: Research into causes and consequences of climate change so we understand more about it and can do more to prevent it.
Forms of Pollution
- Waste: Increase in waste that is not biodegradable or recyclable. This takes up space, spreads disease and releases dangerous chemicals, e.g. computers.
- Land: Leads to poor plant growth and threatens animal habitats, e.g. littering, pesticides and radioactive waste.
- Air: Chemicals released into the atmosphere threaten the chemical balance of the air, leading to acid rain and smog, e.g. vehicle fumes, burning fossil fuels and power station waste.
- Water: Affects the water quality, e.g. chemicals, fertilisers, oil, sewage and eutrophication.
Solutions to Pollution
- Less Waste: Recycle as much as possible, reduce packaging and re-use as much as possible.
- Government Action: Anti-pollution laws to limit the amount of pollution, and severe penalties if these laws are broken.
- Alternative Energy Sources: Use of renewable, clean sources such as solar and wind power to reduce waste and pollution.
- Alternative Manufacturing Methods: Research into ways of manufacturing that cause less waste or that remove waste more efficiently.
- Wind Power
- Solar Power (from the Sun)
- Wave Power
- Water Power
- Fertile Land
Advantages: They will never run out, most don't cause pollution.
Disadvantages: Many need specific conditions, and are more expensive.
- Elements, minerals and rocks (e.g. Uranium)
Advantages: Some can be recycled and they're useful for transport, electricity, buildings and everyday products.
Disadvantages: They are scarce, they cannot be replaced once used up, and many cause pollution.
Issues with Natural Resources
- Humans are reliant on non-renewable energy sources.
- If they continue being used at their current rate, they will run out.
- This will have an enormous impact on the planet and human life.
Possible Solutions to Natural Resource Issues
Conservation: Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations.
- Use renewable energy sources.
- Conserve electricity.
- Walk or cycle rather than drive.
- Use products made from renewable sources.
Christian Teachings on Attitudes to the Environmen
- Creation: The idea that the Earth and everything in it was created by God and should be looked after.
- Stewardship: God gave humans this over the world, so they must care for it for future generations.
- Authority/Dominion: God gave humans this over the Earth, so they have a position of power and responsibility to care for God's creation.
- Responsibility: Humans have a God-given responsibility to care for the world and environment for future generations.
The Bible's Teachings on the Environment
- Christians should take care of the environment because it is a gift from God.
- They should share the resources of the world more equally because Jesus taught Christians to love and help each other.
- They should conserve the Earth's natural resources for future generations.
- They should reduce pollution to help the environment.
- They should care for animals and plant life because they were created by God.
Muslim Teachings on Attitudes to the Environment
- Allah puts humans in charge of his creation so Muslims should respect this gift.
- Adam, the first human, was made as a 'khalifah' or caretaker of the Earth - all humans now have this responsibility.
- Allah created everything to have unity and all is dependant on everything else in the world.
- All Muslims are a part of the 'ummah' and should look after the world for future generations, sharing resources equally.
- Animals are a part of Allah's creation, the human caretakers should treat them with respect too.
- Allah will judge everyone, including whether they took care of the world.
Islam Teachings on the Environment
- They support environmental organisations and charities.
- They recycle and reduce energy use.
- They plant trees and crops, using them for the good of others.
- They do not overuse the Earth's resources.
- They share the Earth's resources more equally.
- They do not damage the natural environment.
- They avoid waste and pollution.
Types of Medical Treatment for Infertility
- Artificial Insemination: The partner's sperm is medically put into the mother's womb.
- In-vitro Fertilisation: An egg is taken from the mother, fertilised in a test tube with the sperm, and placed back in her womb.
- Donor Artificial Insemination: The donor sperm is medically put into the mother's womb.
- Egg Donation: The partner's sperm is used to fertilise a donor egg in a test tube and put into the mother's womb.
- Embryo Donation: Sperm and eggs are provided by donors and placed in the woman's womb.
- Surrogacy: Another woman carries the baby for the couple.
Issues with Fertility Treatments
- They are very expensive.
- There are no guarantees they will work, many attempts may be required.
- The drugs have uncomfortable side effects.
- The relationship may be put under great strain due to treatment.
- The donors can cause conflict or problems bonding with the child.
- It is debated if a child should know their biological parents.
- Surrogates may grow attached to the child they're carrying.
Christian Response to Infertility
- Some accept it as God's plan for them not to have children.
- Some may choose to adopt children instead.
- Some may direct their parental skills in a different way through a school, charity or Church work.
- Some may choose to explore fertility treatments.
Christian Viewpoints AGAINST Fertility Treatments
- No one has a 'right' to have children if this is not God's will.
- Some treatments involve masturbation, which is a sin.
- Some embryos that are not used are destroyed, so some feel this is murder and goes against the sanctity of life.
- Many see using donor sperm and eggs as adultery.
- Most do not accept surrogacy.
- God intended children to be created naturally through sex of a married couple.
Christian Viewpoints FOR Fertility Treatments
- This allows infertile couples to experience the joy of having children, which is what God intended for humans to do.
- It depends on the situation, and may be more acceptable for married, childless couples.
- God gave humans the knowledge to create children artificially.
- God commanded humans to 'be fruitful and multiply' - Genesis 1:28
- This is a way of loving thy neighbour and follows the Golden Rule.
Muslim Viewpoints FOR Fertility Treatments
- Infertility is seen as a disease, so it is okay to try and find a cure.
- Childbirth and childreating are important family commitments.
- Children brings couples closer together.
- The role of a Muslim woman in society and the family involves her ability to have children.
- In-vitro Fertilisation and Artificial Insemination are allowed because the sperm and egg are from the married couple.
- Embryos destroyed during IVF are 14 days old, so they have no gone through ensoulment yet.
- Allah gave humans the knowledge to create life this way.
- If the treatment fails, this is the wish of Allah.
Muslim Viewpoints AGAINST Fertility Treatments
- Some believe if Allah does not want a couple to have a child, they should accept it and not have treatment.
- They must follow Allah's plan the way he wishes.
- Most disagree with the use of donor sperm or eggs.
- This brings a third person into the couple which is seen as adultery.
- All children are thought to have the right to know their biological parents.
- All believe that surrogacy is wrong.
- It is seen as adultery also.
- The woman who gives birth is always the mother of the child.
Transplant Surgery Advantages
- People and their loved ones have the opportunity to help others after their death.
- This is because organs are used which otherwise would have been wasted.
- This offers relief to those who receive transplants and their loved ones.
Transplant Surgery Ethical Problems
- It is expensive.
- It is a limited form of treatment.
- It is difficult to decide who receives the transplant, such as who to prioritise in these situations.
Issues Raised by Organ Donation
- It raises questions about when a person is actually considered 'dead'.
- Should a person be kept alive or allowed to die purely for organ donation?
- There are not enough donor organs for those requiring organs.
- Should humans be using organs from animals?
- Family members may feel pressurised into donating organs to a loved one.
- Who gets the organ when there is not enough for those who need them?
Reasons Christians Agree with Transplant Surgery
- It raises no problem with the afterlife, because a body is not needed in Heaven.
- Organ Donation is loving and charitable, following the teachings of Jesus to love one another.
- People can show gratitude to God for the gift of life.
- Organ Donation is a matter of personal conscience.
- Organ Donation is a positive action and they're encouraged to be donors.
- Some argue a donor should be dead before donation.
Reasons Christians Disagree with Transplant Surger
- It goes against the sanctity of life because people should not 'play God'.
- This interferes with God's plan for every human being.
- The organs are part of a person created by God, it is seen as wrong to try and change God's creation.
- Organs shouldn't be replaced if the person has deliberately caused the damage to themselves, for example through alcohol.
Muslim Viewpoints AGAINST Transplant Surgery
- The Qur'an teaches that the body should be buried soon after death and should not be interfered with.
- They believe the body will be resurrected on the last day, and the organs will therefore be needed.
- It goes against the sanctity of life, because only God should give and take life.
Muslim Viewpoints FOR Transplant Surgery
- Some believed Organ Donation is okay to save the lives of others, because this is what Allah would wish.
- Live donations are less controversial because people can still survive afterwards, so the resurrection would be unaffected.
- Many Muslims would allow living donor transplants to close relatives.
(1995) The Shari'ah Law Council UK issued guidance on organ donation stating;
- The Council supports organ transplants to alleviate pain or save life.
- Muslims may carry donor cards.
- In the absence of a donor card, the next of kin may give permission for the organs of a loved one to be used to save other people's lives.
Causes of War
- Self-defence - To defend your country if attacked.
- Economics/Natural Resources - water, land, oil.
- National Pride
- Injustice/Aggression - Unprovoked attacks.
- Racial/Ethnic Hatred
- Protection from Persecution/Exploitation - When those weaker are taken advantage of.
- Civil war between the Sudanese army and a number of different mainly non-Arab groups.
- Sudanese Army: Supported by the government and an Arab military group called the Janjaweed).
- Non-Arab Groups: Including the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement).
- Sudan is now split into two countries, Sudan and The Republic of South Sudan.
- The situation still remains unsettled.
Factors of Darfur
- Economic: Food and water shortages due to drought and increasing desertification, forced people to move south onto farmland already owned by others struggling to survive.
- Ethnic Hatred: Both sides had long-standing disputes over religious and ethnic issues, the government was accused of persecuting non-Arabs.
- National Pride: Some anti-government forces wanted south of Sudan to be independant, the government wanted one country.
- Remote Location: Poor transport and communication links, so other countries took too long to find out.
The United Nations and World Peace
- Uses conflict resolution: Bringing fighting to a peaceful conclusion.
- Uses reconciliation: Bringing opposing people together.
- Use methods such as arms control, disarmament, reduce weapons of mass destruction, peace talks, trade restrictions, peacekeeping forces and military action.
- Fight against poverty, campaign for human rights, and solve conflict issues.
- Their basic aim is to achieve complete World Peace.
The UN Case Study: Darfur
- Negotiation: The Sudanese government and the UN agreed to stop the conflict, the government failing to do so.
- Sanctions: Several countries stopped trading with Sudan. The UN threatening sanctions gained some response from the Sudan government.
- Peacekeeping Forces: Had some success in 2007 at protecting civilians.
- Success or Failure?: They managed to stem the number and frequency of the killings, but it was too late to prevent mass killing in Darfur.
Christian Organisations and World Peace
- World Council of Churches (1948);
Encourages Christians to heal divisions between nations by talking, they've been involved in South Africa, Sudan, Korea and Latin America.
- Pax Christi (1945);
An international Catholic organisation set up to work for peace, they are opposed to war and violence, and they encourage discussion, economic justice and social justice.
Islamic Organisations and World Peace
- Islamic Relief (1948);
Founded to help victims of war, they had worked in Bosnia, Somalia and Iraq.
- The Muslim Peace Fellowship (1994);
They work to promote world peace, work against injustice, reaches out to people of all faiths, tries to develop understanding and mutual respect.
Religious Actions for World Peace
- Hold peace vigils.
- Help victims who are suffering injustice.
- Educate all involved.
- Encourage peace talks.
- Pass information about injustices in the world.
- Campaign against oppressive governments.
- Teach forgiveness.
- Encourage reconciliation and non-violence.
- Hold interfaith conferences.
- Take part in public demonstrations against war and injustice.
Criteria for a Just War
Just War: A war being fought for the right reasons in the right way.
- A reasonable chance of success.
- The aim is to bring peace.
- It is a last resort after negotiations and non-violent methods have failed.
- The methods are fair and reasonable.
- The cause of the war is just - e.g. resisting aggression or injustice.
- No innocent civilians are killed.
Issues with Just War
- Both sides of the war can argue their cause is 'just'.
- An example is the Nazis believing they were right for fighting the second world war.
- The Just War theory has been manipulated by leaders to justify their actions and clain they have fought in the name of God.
- In the Iraq war, the USA calimed they invaded for the force of good, but al-Qaeda claimed they fought in the name of Allah.
The Bible Teachings About War
- The Bible has a message of peace.
- One of the titles given to Jesus was "Prince of Peace".
- "Blessed are the peacemakers" - Matthew 5:9
- "If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also" - Matthew 5:39
- "Love your enemies" - Matthew 5:44
- "For all who draw the sword will die by the sword" - Matthew 26:52
Christians and the Just War Theory
- Jesus taught that obedience should be shown to the government.
- St Paul told people that they had a duty to obey those in authority.
- It is right to have armed forces to protect nations.
- There are situations where war is the lesser of two evils.
- Sometimes violence is necessary, e.g. in response to an invasion.
Pacifist: Someone who believes all disputes should be settled peacefully.
- The Ten Commandments forbid killing.
- Jesus taught that people should love their enemies.
- Nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction cause unimaginable suffering.
- Jesus stopped his own followers from using violence.
- Lesser 'jihad' is a just war theory.
- It is a physical struggle or war.
- The Qur'an teaches peace, but there are some circumstances where violence is allowed.
Lesser 'Jihad' Reasons
- If the war is fought for a just cause - to defend Islam or injustice.
- As a last resort.
- If it is authorised by Muslim authority.
- The minimum amount of suffering is caused.
- Ends when the enemy surrenders.
- Innocent civilians are not attacked.
- When the aim is to restore peace and freedom.
- The struggle Muslims face within themselves.
- This is to make them better Muslims and bring them closer to Allah.
- For example, studying the Qur'an, doing good deeds, attending mosque and fighting greed or envy.
Muslim Attitudes Against War
- Peace and reconciliation is at the heart of Islam and the teachings of the Qur'an.
- Modern weapons cannot be used in a way that is compatible with Muslim rules about fighting war.
- Non-violence is the only way to achieve peace.
- Violence only leads to more violence.
Types of Bullying
- Bullying is intimidating or frightening people weaker than yourself.
- Physically harming or attacking someone.
- Stealing or damaging someone else's property.
- Accusing people of things they have not done to get them into trouble.
- Calling people names.
- People may bully others due to problems at home, wanting to look tough, or they dislike themselves and take it out on others.
Christian Attitudes to Bullying
- The Samaritans: A UK charity that offers telephone support to people suffering from bullying.
- Violence without cause is against Christian teachings.
- Everyone is made in the image of God, so bullying is mistreating God's creation.
- Jesus taught us that we should love one another and treat others how we would like to be treated.
- Everyone should be treated with respect, and the weak and vulnerable deserve protection.
- The Bible teaches God will tke action against cruel behaviour.
- God judges humans after death, so he will punish bullies.
Muslim Attitudes to Bullying
- Islam teaches aggression or violence without just cause is wrong.
- Everyone was created by Allah, so it is wrong to abuse any part of his creation.
- Islam teaches that Muslims should work to end injustice and cruelty.
- Muhammad taught that Muslims should protect and help the weak and vulnerable.
- All Muslims believe that on the last day, they will be judged by Allah on the way they have lived their lives.
People who can Help Bully Victims
A free, confidential 24-hour helpline for young people, offers help of trained counsellors to resolve different problems, they get everyone in school to campaign against bullying, put up posters and set up peer counselling schemes to provide support.
- Kidscape (1984);
Founded by Dr Michele Elliot, aims to teach children about personal safety and how to deal with issues such as bullying.
Common Causes of Family Conflict
- Drug use
- Moral Issues
- Sibling rivalry
- Choice of friends
Causes of Conflict in Religious Families
- Social Behaviour: Drinking alcohol, socialising with members of the opposite sex.
- Moral Issues: Cohabiting with a partner, choosing to have an abortion.
- Jobs/Careers: Some careers conflict with religious teachings.
- Partners: Especially if they are from another faith or of the same sex.
- Children: Society and time have changed, older generations may have different views.
Christianity and Islam Teachings on Family Conflic
Children should honour their parents, as stated in the Ten Commandments.
Parents should care for their children and support them.
No child should cause harm to their parents and parents should care for their children.
Muslims should obey their parents, even in adulthood and respect the wisdom that they offer.
Christian Teachings on Forgiveness
- Jesus died on the cross to bring forgiveness and reconciliation between humanity and God.
- Christians should forgive others and God will help them to do this even when it is difficult.
- The Bible teaches people should forgive those they have argued/fought with.
- The Bible also teaches that reconciliation is the best way to solve conflict with family and friends.
- "Love your enemies" - Luke 6:27
- "If you hold anything against anyone, forgive him" - Mark 11:25
What is Considered Unforgiveable
- Anthony Walker, aged 18, murdered in a racially motivated attack in 2005.
- His parents spoke after the murderers were sent to prison, saying they stood by their Christian teachings of forgiveness.
- Some Christians believe that with the love of God, everything is forgiveable, if they don't forgive in life then God won't forgive them.
- Other Christians believe that is conflict about a particular issue where the Bible has a definite teaching, then there can be no reconciliation.
Muslim Teachings on Forgiveness
- Conflicts should be resolved using forgiveness and reconcilation.
- The Day of Judgement, Allah will show mercy and forgiveness to those who have done the same towards others.
- Allah is also referred to as "the Compassionate and Merciful", showing Allah forgives people and Muslims should too.
- Muhammad taught people that they should forgive and be reconciled with those who have offended them.
- "If a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from God" - Surah 42:40
Forgiveness and 'Hajj'
- Hajj: The pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca).
- Muslims climb Jebel al-Rahma (Mount Mercy) on the Plain of Arafat.
- Here, they will pray for forgivenss.
- Allah will therefore forgive their sins.
Islam Unforgivable Actions
- Working against Islam.
- Freely denying Muslim principles.
- Images of Muhammad, e.g. September 2005, a Danish newspaper published cartoons of Muhammad and it was considered deeply offensive.
Why we Need the Law
- To protect the weak.
- To create peace for everyone to live in.
- To be kept safe from criminals.
- To give guidelines on acceptable behaviour.
- To be able to live without fear.
- To be protected from violence.
Justice vs Sin
Comes from the courts becuase they apply the law firmly, this is the process of allocating rewards or punishments and upholding what is right.
An action against the will of God, some are crimes such as murder, some are not crimes such as adultery.
How Laws are Made
- Proposed law is written out in a document called a Bill, which is introduced and debated in the House of Commons, first reading.
- The Bill is again debated in Parliament, second reading.
- The Bill is passed to a committee who go through it in detail.
- It is debated again, vote is taken and if in favour of the Bill, it is passed to the House of Lords, third reading.
- House of Lords debate and vote on the Bill.
- If passed, it is sent to the Queen to give it the Royal Assent.
- The Bill becomes an Act of Parliament and is law.
Theories of Punishment
- Deterrence: A punishment should discourage someone from doing something that is against the law.
- Retribution: A punishment should make criminals pay for what they have done wrong, making victims feel a sense of justice.
- Protection: A punishment is to protect society from violent or dangerous criminals by keeping them in prison.
- Reform: A punishment should help to change a criminal, so they no longer commit further crimes.
Arguments Against Theories of Punishment
- Deterrence doesn't work, nearly half of all criminals tend to reoffend and prisons are full.
- Retribution doesn't work, soem victims feel criminals do not get severe enough punishment.
- Reform is seen to go against punishment as it gives criminals more chances.
- Protection only works if criminals are in prison, but many are released back into society.
Christian Teachings on Justice
- God is just and people should behave the same way.
- Jesus taught that everyone should be treated fairly.
- Jesus taught the Golden Rule.
- All Christian Churches teach that Christians should behave in a just manner.
- Judgement Day, God will judge all humans according to how they have lived, if they lived justly then they will be rewarded.
- It is up to God to judge people, and he will forgive those who are truly sorry enough for what they have done.
How Christians Help Justice Systems
- Ensuring resources are shared equally.
- Giving to charity or working in areas of hardship.
- Campaigning for governments and organisations to help other nations.
- Helping those who are oppressed.
- Christian Aid;
Works in area of poverty.
Helps those in needs and campaigns against injustice.
Seeks to change government policy.
Campaigns for an end to unjust debts imposed on the poor.
Catholic Fund for Overseas Development.
Campaigns for justice for the poor.
Campaigned against landmines, the debt owed by the third world and for the rich to be more active in helping the poor and oppressed.
Muslim Teachings on Justice
- The Last Day, Allah will reward those who have been just and fair towards others.
- The Qur'an teaches that God wants people to act fairly towards everyone.
- Everyone is equal under Islamic Law.
- Justice is the basis of charitable giving in Islam.
- The Shari'ah Law requires justice for all.
- Prophet Muhammad always acted in a just way.
Why Muslims Work for Justice
- To obey the Qur'an.
- To fulfil Shari'ah.
- To fulfil the Five Pillars.
- Muslims encouraged to give 'Sadaqah', which is voluntary charitable donations, and to act charitably towards others.
- To please Allah and fulfill his demands.
- Muslim Aid;
Works to relieve poverty and secure justice for the poor and oppressed.
Aims to get richer nations to help poorer ones.
- Islamic Relief;
Seeks to improve the lives of people affected by poverty, wars and natural disasters.
Provides emergency food and medical relief.
- Execution where the life of a condemned prisoner is taken away.
- It was abolished in the UK in 1973, except cases of treason, and was completely abolished in 1998.
- European Convention on Human Rights (1999): Execution was abolished throughout the European Union.
- Some nations still have the death penalty.
- Methods of execution include hanging, lethal injection, electric chair, beheading and firing squad.
Arguments FOR Capital Punishment
- The death penalty is a deterrence to stop crimes.
- The value of human life is made clear by taking it away from those who kill others.
- It can make people confess their crimes, resulting in shorter sentences.
- Society can rid itself of the most dangerous criminals.
- Execution is retribution for taking the life of another, and may help the family to grieve.
- It has a good psychological effect on society, who see the idea of bad things happening to bad people as fair.
Arguments Against Capital Punishment
- Countries that still have the death penalty do not have lower crime rates.
- People can be executed and later turn out to be completely innocent.
- Some see execution as murder, which is as bad as the criminal's act.
- Human life is special and should not be taken away under any circumstances.
- Terrorists who are executed may be seen as heroes and this can further increase terrorist acts.
- Some see this as an easier punishment than a life sentence.
Christian Attitudes FOR Capital Punishment
- The Old Testament teaches that the death penalty should be used for some crimes.
- Jesus never taught that the death penalty was wrong.
- Middle Ages, Christian Church used death penalty against those who challenged the Church authority.
- St Paul teahces that Christians should accept and obey the laws of their country, possibly including the death penalty.
Christian Attitudes AGAINST Capital Punishment
- It goes against the sanctity of life argument.
- Jesus taught revenge is wrong.
- Most Christian Churches have spoken out against capital punishment.
- The overall message is love and forgiveness, which capital punishment doesn't portray.
- Jesus came to Earth to save and refrom people - this cannot be done with capital punishment.
Shari'ah and Capital Punishment
- The Qur'an teaches that capital punishment can be used for some crimes.
- Crimes that carry the death penalty usually involve murder, ****, homosexual acts and apostasy.
- The Qur'an says the death penalty can only be given as a last resort, after a fair trial.
- The criteria for the death penalty are very strict, e.g. for adultery four people have to testify.
- The victim or their family has to agree to the sentence.
Muslim Attitudes FOR Capital Punishment
- The Qur'an says death penalty can be used for certain crimes, e.g. murder and adultery.
- Shari'ah Law agrees with the Qur'an.
- Muhammad made statements suggesting he agreed with the death penalty.
- Muhammad sentenced people to death for committing murder.
Muslim Attitudes AGAINST Capital Punishment
- The scholars of Shari'ah do not agree when or how the death penalty should be applied.
- The Qur'an states that it is one option, not compulsory.
- Strict conditions given by the Qur'an are often not met.
- Some countries have been seen to have oppressed the poor and women who recieve the death penalty for adultery.
- Soem Muslims persuaded by non-religious arguments against capital punishment.
- Drug: A chemical that changes your mood or the way you feel.
- Some drugs, alcohol and tobacco, can be damaging to your health.
- People can become addicted.
- Children need protection from some drugs.
- Some drugs caused social problems.
- Soem drugs, e.g. antibiotics, can improve health.
- Drugs, e.g. caffeine in tea, are seen to be fairly harmless in moderation.
Types of Drugs
- Stimulants: Affect the central nervous system and increase brain activity, e.g. cigarettes, amphetamines and cocaine.
- Depressants: Slow down brain activity, e.g. alcohol and solvents.
- Hallucinogens: Change your senses and give the impression that things are there when they're not, e.g. LSD, mushrooms and cannabis.
- Analgesics: Painkilling drugs, e.g. aspirin, paracetamol, heroin.
UK Alcohol Laws
- Children under 16 are not allowed in a pub/bar without an adult.
- Under 18s are not allowed to drink alcohol in a pub/bar, except if 16/17 are having a meal.
- Alcohol can be served 24 hours a day in licensed premises.
- Under 18s cannot buy alcohol.
- Places that sell alcohol have to have a license.
- It is illegal to buy alcohol for someone underage.
Social and Health Problems
- Disorderly Behaviour
- Mental Illness
- Family/Relationship Breakdown
- Serious Illness
- Men shouldn't drink more than 3-4 units a day.
- Women shouldn't drink more than 2-3 units a day.
- Binge Drinking: Twice the recommended amount.
- Heart disease, stroke, liver disease and cancer.
- Psychological and emotional breakdowns.
- Lung Disease.
- High Blood Pressure.
- Poor Dental Health.
- Smell of Nicotine and Smoke.
- Impacts Relationships.
- Crime to fund addiction.
- Social Disorder.
- Lack of incentive to work.
- Loss of a regular lifestyle.
- Serious Overdoses.
- Psychological Effects.
- Mental Illness.
- Loss of Brain Function.
Christian Attitudes to Drugs and Alcohol
- Chrisitians should follow the law of the land in which they live.
- Illegal drugs are illegal because they are dangerous.
- Illegal drug users turn to crime.
- Drug abuse leads to family breakups and antisocial behaviour.
- Illegal drugs change a person's behaviour.
- "Your body is a temple", therefore we should not abuse it with such substances.
Reasons FOR Drinking Alcohol
- The Bible does not forbid alcohol.
- Jesus himself drank wine and performed a miracle of turning water into wine.
- Jesus gave his disciples wine at the Last Supper.
- St Paul told his friend Timothy to drink wine to help with digestion.
Reasons AGAINST Drinking Alcohol
- Impairs a person's judgement and their ability to act in a Christian manner.
- There are many other drinks than just wine today.
- Alcohol is much stronger now than it was in the past.
- It is best to avoid offending others so do not drink at all.
Muslim Attitudes to Drugs and Alcohol
- Humans were created by Allah and people should look after their bodies and not abuse them.
- The Qur'an says intoxicants are 'haram' (forbidden).
- The side-effects would mean Muslims would not be able to pray or perform their religious duties.
- All Muslims should obey the law of the land.
- The side-effects mean Muslims are more likely to commit other sins.
- Muhammad taught about the dangers of alcohol and drugs.
They're the "mother of all sins".
- Some Muslims will not sell alcohol as part of their businesses.