RELIGION AND LIFE: RELIGION AND COMMUNITY COHESION

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Roles of Men and Women - Changing Attitudes in the

CHANGING FEMALE ROLE

  • TRADITIONALLY, ROLES OF WOMEN WERE TO STAY AT HOME AND LOOK AFTER CHILDREN - WARS ALLOWED WOMEN TO TAKE ON JOBS OF MEN
  • CHANGES IN LAW - 1918 - SOME WOMEN ALLOWED TO VOTE - 1945 - WOMEN WANTED EQUALITY
  • CHANGES IN LAW AND EFFECT OF WARS - WOMEN ALLOWED TO DO ANY JOB THEY WANT - 1970 - WOMEN GIVEN EQUAL PAY
  • EFECTIVE CONTRACEPTION AND EQUAL RIGHTS - WOMEN ARE NOW BETTER EDUCATUED

CHANGING MALE ROLE

  • TRADITIONALLY, MENS ROLE WAS TO GO OUT AND WORK TO PROVIDE FOR FAMILY
  • CHANGES IN ATTITUDES - MEN MORE INVOLVED IN RAISING CHILDREN AND DOING TASKS TRADITIONALLY SEEN AS WOMENS WORK LIKE COOKING AND HOUSEWORK

INEQUALITIES THAT STILL EXIST

  • PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION - JOBS LIKE NURSES STILL SEEN AS WOMENS JOBS, MEN STILL BEING PAYED UP TO 17% MORE EVEN THOUGH GIRLS ACHIEVE HIGHER EXAM RESULTS
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Roles of Men and Women - Protestant Beliefs

REASONS FOR TRADITIONAL PROTESTANTS TEACHING THAT MEN AND WOMEN HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES

  • TEACHINGS OF ST PAUL ABOUT WHY WOMEN AREN'T ALLOWED TO SPEAK IN CHURCH
  • TEACHINGS IN GENESIS 2 ABOUT ADAM BEING CREATED FIRST
  • DISCIPLES OF JESUS WERE MEN

REASONS FOR MODERN PROTESTANTS ACCEPTING THAT WOMEN AND MEN ARE EQUAL

  • TEACHINGS IN GENESIS 1 THAT MEN AND WOMEN WERE CREATED EQUALLY AND AT THE SAME TIME
  • TEACHING OF ST PAUL THAT IN CHRIST THERE IS NEITHER MALE OR FEMALE
  • EVIDENCE IN GOSPELS THAT JESUS TREATED MEN AND WOMEN EQUALLY - PREACHED IN COURT OF WOMEN IN JERUSALEM TEMPLE, HAD WOMEN DISCIPLES WHO STAYED WITH HIM AT THE CROSS AND TREATED WOMEN SAMARITANS EQUALLY
  • POSSIBLE EVIDENCE THAT THERE WERE WOMEN PRIESTS IN EARLY CHURCH
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Roles of Men and Women - Catholic Beliefs

CATHOLIC TEACHINGS

  • MEN AND WOMEN SHOULD HAVE EQUAL ROLES IN LIFE AND SOCIETY
  • ONLY MEN SHOULD BE PREISTS BUT THIS DOES NOT AFFECT EQUAL STATUS OF WOMEN

REASONS

  • GENESIS - MEN AND WOMEN CREATED AT SAME TIME
  • TEACHING OF CATHOLIC CATECHISM - MEN AND WOMEN EQUAL BUT ONLY MEN CAN BE PRIESTS
  • APOSTLES ALL MEN - PRIESTS AND BISHOPS SUCCESSORS OF THE APOSTLES
  • JESUS WAS A MAN - PREIST REPRESENTS JESUS IN THE MASS
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Multi-Ethnic Society - The UK

MULTI-ETHNICITY IN THE UK

  • ALWAYS BELIEVED IN HUMAN FREEDOM AND OFFERED ASYLUM TO THOSE SUFFERING PERSECUTION
  • 92.1% WHITE BRITISH - OTHER RACES ARE BLACK BRITISH, MIXED BRITISH, CHINESE BRITISH, ASIAN BRITISH

BENEFITS

  • ENCOURAGES RACIAL HARMONY - HELPS PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT ETHNICITIES UNDERSTAND EACHOTHER
  • GIVES WIDER VERIETY OF CULTURE E.G. FOOD, MUSIC, CLOTHES
  • BRINGS NEW PEOPLE AND FRESH IDEAS TO THE COUNTRY - STIMULATES INDUSTRY AND CHANGE
  • REDUCES CHANCE OF WAR - PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT ETHNICITIES WILL LEARN TO LIKE EACHOTHER

PROBLEMS

  • IGNORANCE - PEOPLE SOMETIMES UNEDUCATED AND UNINFORMED ABOUT OTHERS - LEADS TO CONFLICT
  • RACISM AND DISCRIMINAITON
  • PERSECUTION - PEOPLE FROM ETHNIC MINORITIES HAVE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSED
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Community Cohesion - The Government

ACTION TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT TO PROMOTE COMMUNITY COHESION

  • RACE RELATIONS ACT 1976 - MADE IT UNLAWFUL TO DISCRIMINATE BASED ON RACE, COLOUR, WEALTH ETC.
  • MADE IT ILLEGAL TO USE ABUSIVE OR INSULTING WORDS OF RACIAL NATURE IN PUBLIC
  • COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY - ESTABLISHED TO FIGHT RACISM, TEACH IMPORTANCE OF RACIAL EQUALITY AND DEAL WITH COMPLAINTS OF RACISM
  • BRITISHNESS TEST - ALL NEW IMMIGRANTS MUST TAKE A TEST TO ENSURE THEY HAVE BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF BRITISH LIFE
  • THE COMMUNITY FACILITATION PROGRAM AND NEIGHBORHOOD RENEWAL UNITS - SET UP TO ENSURE ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES HAVE SKILLS NECESSARY FOR WORK, OPPERTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE, APPROPRIATE HEALTHCARE AND THAT THEIR NEEDS ARE MET
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Racial Harmony - Christian Beliefs

WHY CHRISTIANS PROMOTE RACIAL HARMONY

  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • ALL HUMANS MADE IN GOD'S IMAGE
  • JESUS HAD A BLACK AFRICAN HELPING HIM CARRY HIS CROSS
  • ST PAUL TAUGHT THAT GOD CREATED ALL HUMANS FROM ONE MAN - ADAM - EVERYONE IS EQUAL
  • CHRISTIAN LEADERS OF EVERY COLOUR AND RACE - CHURCH DEDICATED TO FIGHTING RACISM
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Multi-Faith Society - The UK

UK LAWS

  • 1699 - NONCONFORMISTS GIVEN FREEDOM OF WORSHIP
  • 1828 - NONCONFORMISTS GIVEN SAME POLITICAL RIGHTS AS MEMBERS OF C OF E
  • 1829 - ROMAN CATHOLICS GIVEN SAME POLITICAL RIGHTS AS MEMBERS OF C OF E
  • 1858 - JEWS GIVEN SAME POLITICAL RIGHTS AS MEMBERS OF C OF E

BENEFITS OF MULTI-FAITH SOCIETY

  • PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT OTHER RELIGIONS - SEE WHAT THEY HAVE IN COMMON
  • PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT RELIGIONS MAY PRACTISE THEIR RELIGION MORE SERIOUSKY - GOOD INFLUENCE ON PEOPLE OF OTHER RELIGIONS
  • RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND PLURALISM WILL EXIST - MAY HELP STOP RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS
  • MAY MAKE PEOPLE THINK ABOUT RELIGION AS THEY COME ACROSS RELIGIOUS IDEAS THAT THEY'VE NEVER HEARD OF BEFORE
  • PEOPLE LIKELY TO BECOME MORE UNDERSTANDING OF OTHER RELIGIONS - REALISE THAT EVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO OWN OPINION
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Multi-Faith Society - Christian Beliefs

PLURISM - OTHER RELIGIONS MUST BE RESPECTED AND GIVEN FREEDOM TO PRACTISE THEM

  • DON'T BELIEVE BIBLE IS WORD OF GOD
  • SEE OTHER RELIGONS LIVING GOOD LIVES IN MULTI FAITH SOCIETIES TODAY
  • BELIEVE GOD IS A FORCE LIKE GRAVITY - CAN BE DISCOVERED BY PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT WAYS
  • 'IN MY FATHERS HOUSE ARE MANY ROOMS' - ROOM IN HEAVEN FOR ALL RELIGIONS
  • ALL HUMANS CREATED IN GODS IMAGE

EXCLUSIVISM - ONLY ONE RELIGION IS RIGHT AND PEOPLE OF OTHER FAITHS SHOULD BE CONVERTED

  • "I AM THE WAY AND THE TRUTH AND THE LIFE"
  • THE GOLDEN RULE - EVERYONE WANTS TO GO TO HEAVEN

INCLUSIVISM - OTHER RELIGIONS STILL LEAD TO GOD BUT PEOPLE SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO CONVERT

  • TEACHING OF CATHOLIC CHURCH
  • JESUS IS THE SON OF GOD - SHOWS TRUE NATURE OF GOD
  • BIBLE TEACHES THAT ONLY CHRISTIANS ARE ASSURED OF SALVATION
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Multi-Faith Society - Problems

  • CONVERSION - RELIGIONS SEE IT AS THEIR DUTY TO CONVERT EVERYONE TO THEIR RELIGION
    • BELIEVE THAT ALL OTHER RELIGIONS ARE WRONG AND THEY SHOULD SHOW PEOPLE THAT
    • REGARDED AS SEGREGATION - CAN LEAD TO FIGHTS WITHIN MULTI-FAITH SOCIETY
  • BRINGING UP CHILDREN - MULTI FAITH SOCIETY REQUIRES CHILDREN TO HAVE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
    • ALSO REQUIRES CHILDREN TO LEARN ABOUT DIFFERENT RELIGIONS IN SOCIETY SO THEY CAN RESPECT OTHERS AND THEIR RIGHT TO BE RELIGIOUS OR NOT BE RELIGIOUS
    • MOST RELIGIONS TEACH PARENTS TO RAISE CHILDREN IN THEIR RELIGION - MANY NOT WILLING TO LET THEIR CHILD LEARN ABOUT OTHERS OR CHOOSE THEIR RELIGOUS VIEWS
    • MAY CAUSE PARENTS TO BE WORRIED ABOUT AFTERLIFE IF CHILD DECIDES TO CHANGE RELIGION
  • MIXED MARRIAGES - YOUNG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT FAITHS GOING TO MEET - MAYBE WANT TO MARRY
    • OFTEN CAN BE NO RELIGIOUS WEDDING CEREMONY FOR COUPLE
    • WHICH RELIGION WILL CHILDREN BE BROUGHT UP IN?
    • DEATH - COUPLES BURRIED IN SEPERATE PARTS OF CEMETRY ACCORDING TO RELIGION?
    • PARENTS FEEL COUPLE HAS BETRAYED THEIR ROOTS
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Community Cohesion - Christians

HOW RELIGIONS HELP

  • RELIGIOUS GROUPS - E.G. COUNCIL OF CHRISTIANS - WORK TOGETHER TO OPEN DISCUSSIONS AND HEAL DIVISIONS BETWEEN FAITHS
  • SHARING BASIC UNDERSTANDING THAT GOD CREATED ALL HUMANS AS EQUAL
  • CELEBRATIONS OF FESTIVALS AND WORSHIP WHERE DIFFERENT FAITHS TAKE PART IN SERVICES WHICH SHOW RESPECT AND UNITY FOR EACHOTHER
  • ENCOURAGING REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENT FAITH GROUPS IN JOBS LIKE THE POLICE TO ALLOW GOOD ROLE MODELS FOR UNITY

BOLTON CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY COHESION PROJECT

  • EDUCATION AND YOUTH - PROVIDE FREE FAMILY FUN DAY FOR DIVERSE COMMUNITIES
  • LEISURE - A 'NIGHT CAFE' PROJECT PROVIDES SAFE PLACE FOR PEOPLE TO GO AND ADDRESSES ISSUES OF ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
  • WORKPLACE - SUPPORTS HOSPITALS, THE UNIVERSITY AND TOWN CENTRES FROM THE BOLTON COMMUNITY
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