regeneration economically un/successful places- berkshire and the rust belt

BERKSHIRE- REASONS FOR SUCCESS

TNC/ COMPANY INVESTMENT: headquarters of major TNCs, eg Reading, Slough and Bracknell- Microsoft and Oracle Bracknell has Waitrose and BMW. cheap factory and office spaces

SERVICES AND FACILITIES: many jobs created booming population, demand for services. already was already a tourist attraction (due to historical importance e Windso Park, AONB, Ascot racing, dairy traditional farming). lots of media coverage (Ascot, Midsomer Murders)

TRANSPORT LINKS: M4 links East to West (Cardiff is easy reach of Bristol, to London, London to rest of country or abroad). M25- London Heathrow provides easy business access. Great Western Railway Line. accessible countryside = high quality of life. construction of CROSSRAIL will increase this.

POPULATION as a RESOURCE: 1/4 of Berkshire workers qualified in a knowledge-based, managerial position. links to Uni of Cardiff, Reading, Bristol, Bath and London ones.

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BERKSHIRE DRAWBACKS OF SUCESSES

HOUSE PRICE INCREASES- forces local population out (important to remember not EVERYONE IS RICH- lots of pockets of deprivation within wealthy areas). 20% of them cannot afford to compete with rich young families.

JOB LOSS IN older office/longer journey regions- eg Swindon

ROAD CONGESTION as more people are commutng into London or major cities

CONCEALED POCKETS OF POVERTY- nearly 1/4 of children in Reading live in poverty

CREATION OF COMMUTER TOWNS -local services suffer as little money invested back, house prices rise

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RUSE BELT- REASONS FOR UNSUCCESS

TNC/COMPANY INVESTMENT: deindustrialisation as competition from abroad made laour cheaper so indusrty moved abroad. creates spiral of decline.

SERVICES AND FACILITIES: University in Youngtown (Detroit) wasn't accesible to main town so students wouldnt spend money in town. lack of services (especially community/social ones) made crime grow. people have less disposable incme to spend.

TRANSPORT LINKS: stereotype that using the Greyhound buses is for 'poor' people and immigrants- avoidance. lack of high tech transport. low population density. plans to link Cleveland and Chigaco- creating a hyperloop. lack of public transport like major cities. 14 major rust belt towns have no trains

POPULATION: spiral of decline (beginning with mass unenployment) means less income, people cant afford to live, services shut down, place becomes unnatractive etc.

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PRIORITIES FOR RUST BELT REGENERATION

derelict land transformation eg into pretty AND affordable housing to attract new and young families.

fixing disrepaired homes

gang intervention- social mobility and community schemes

improvements to infrastrcture

crime- social intervention

creation of jobs as businesses are attracted

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