• Created by: holly_u
  • Created on: 11-03-18 16:21


Regeneration= long term upgrading of existing places for urban, rural, industrial and commercial areas. Designed to tackle inequalities.

Place= geographical space shaped by individuals/ communities over time

Rebranding= places given new identity to increase attractiveness and socio-economic success

Rural-urban continuum
transition from densely populated urban places to remote rural

movement of people, capital, information and resources can make places dynamic. Occur at local, national and global scale

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Economic activity- sectors and types of employment

Primary- extraction of materials e.g mining coal
Secondary- manufacturing materials e.g textiles
Quaternary-'knowledge' based e.g media, research, tourism
Quinary- e.g science and engineering

Full time- 35+ hours per week
Part time= 35- hours per week
Permanent contract/ Temporary contract
Employed- by a larger business
Self- employed- free lance

Manufacturing jobs are high throughout the UK but professional jobs are focused in the South e.g London

PRIMARY and SECONDARY sector is falling due to growth of science and technology

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Economic activity and social implications

measured by number of deaths, degree of ill health and life expectancy
Variations income affect 
diet- fast food is cheaper than organic food. Inner cities easier access
quality of housing- bad conditions e.g damp and mould growing as can't afford to repair
access to healthcare

Ethnic minorites have worse health due to worse socio-economic position

Life expectancy
North- South variations in longjevity. Highest life expectancy is London and lowest in Scotland

Variations such as
Biological differences (male/female)- females longer 81.6 than men 77.2
Lifestyle choices- drinking, smoking, exercise

Children recieving free school meals do worse in school (working class white children)
examination success based on income levels, disadvantaged children less likely to carry on.

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Pay inequalities

The Living Wage- a voluntary hourly rate set independently and updated annually

UK- £8.25 per hour
London- £9.40 per hour (more expensive to live in London so 'London Allowance')

Good for business and individuals

Minimum wage- the lowest amount of money companies can pay employees to work

2015- £5.30 (18-20 years old)

Primary and secondary sector jobs recieve less money than skilled, professional sectors
Huge disparity in incomes

High inequality reduces potential for economic growth. The OECD thinks targeting bottom 40% of population will make societies less unfair

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Reasons for change in function

Reasons for functional changes:

HISTORICAL- post production era (fishing and farming) moved to tourism, historical buildings attract tourists

PHYSICAL- coastal erosion forcing change - residents leaving, flooding requiring re-building, location and proximity to larger cities

CONNECTEDNESS- new transport links, motorways, internet and broadband

LOCAL AND NATIONAL PLANNING- image causing government intervention, national government policies on restructuring to reduce negative effects of change


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Functional and demographic change


Administrative- high order functions= banks, doctors surgeries and low order= pubs (historically)

Commercial- rapidly changing because of internet

Retail- online shopping and click and collect

Industrial- small businesses doing high tech have risen


Ethnic composition- 86% white in england and wales

Age structure- 'Studentification' student hotpsots e.g Leeds due to higher education. conflict over antisocial behaviour 

Gentrification- regeneration to middle-class standards due to affluent people moving to the area e.g Soho London losing red light district reputation

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Example of change in function


1855- Victoria dock opened due to arrival of steampower

1880-1920- Victoria and Albert became main docks with hundreds of thousands of cargos

1926- poor working conditions

1939-45- docks damaged during the Blitz

1981- docks closed down as container ports further downstream

2016- regeneration of docks so modern buildings. Margaret Thatcher allowed FDI so high economic activity. Also DLR, tube making accessible to tourists

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Measuring change

4 Methods

Land-use change- land use maps

employment trends- types of jobs (primary/ quaternary), income, full time/ part time

demographic changes- ethnicites in area, age 

levels of deprivation- index of multiple deprivation used to allocate resources. Rank places based on income, employment, education, crime, health and living environment. BUT there are disparities as can have very low deprivation with some people being very rich.

Quanative data= numerical e.g land-use maps
+ easy to interpret, precise
- doesn't explain complex emotions

Qualatative= worded data e.g surveys
+ peoples views properly expressed
- analysis is difficult

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Local Place Research

South-west London previously used to be a market town but now retail based e.g Bentalls centre. It's an urban area. Popular shopping destination with an arts basec culture e.g Rose Theatre
Very low in terms of deprivation levels. Lots of quaternary and quinary jobs
Great connections to central London 40 mins on train.
Supports the Liberal Democrats.
Levels of education are very high- 69.9% achieving 5+ A*-C grades at GCSE
Generally improving further e.g luxury apartments being built by riverside

used to be a mining and copper production based town, now heritage of that era can be seen through stone built engine houses.
Reasonably high deprivation levels- 8,867 people income deprived
Access to A30 so people can travel inland. Takes 5 hours to get to London and £60
Supports Labour
22.9% has no qualifications in 2011 census
Generally not improving as lots of inequality.

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Successful regions

Successful regions tend to be self-sustaining, high employment, education, high property prices, lots of transport links and tertiary and quaternary jobs.

Perceptions of residents:
Young people- enjoy fast paces life styles of cities e.g London
Retirees- enjoy slower paced life e.g Eastbourne (coast, pleasant climate etc.)

M4 Corridor- Berkshire

  • Quaternary jobs e.g Sony 
  • Easy to commute to due to good connections; M4
  • Companies can hire skilled people from abroad because Heathrow close by
  • Land periphery of cities so cheap
  • Near to universities for research

Disadvantages= deindustrialisation in other areas so unemployment high, population increased in Slough by 20% between 2001-201, property prices increasing in nearby towns (commuter villages) because people move closer to their work.

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Unsuccessful regions

Consequences of inequality: low employment, low house prices, lack of educational standards,  segregation of economic groups e.g North-South divide UK, health issues lack of access to healthcare, high infant mortality.

Teeside Rustbelt

  • economic restructuring. Decline of steel industry (highly paid primary and secondary jobs) to low paid tertiary jobs (retail and local gov).
  • population decline-'brain drain'
  • high unemployment as people have no other experience
  • people resorting to crime as angry; theft, graffiti
  • creating poor living environment, barren.

Key terms:
Reinventory cities- have successfully changed economic base to IT & media, as higher paid
Replicator cities- replacing cotton mills with call centres. lots of workers with little qualifications
IntergenerationalI- results of inequality passed down unless someone breaks cycle e.g Uni
Cycle of urban decline- deterioration of a city due to lack of maintenance or investment

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Priorities for Regeneration

Economic and social inequalities in residential sorting prioritises regeneration

Sink estates-high levels of deprivation, crime, domestic violence and drugs. High priority of regeneration. in ROCHDALE nearly 3/4 people on estates don't work.

Gated communities- urban and rural settings characterised by literal walls/ fences with strictly controlled entrances. + no traffic, reduced crime  - gates segregate socially, social paranoia

Commuter villages- large proportion of population regulary commute into larger cities e.g London. They lack services as commuter doesnt need shops, schools etc

Declining rural settlements- rural depopulation, decline in services, job losses due to decline in primary sector, unaffordable housing as rich buy second homes pushing locals out

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Lived experience and engagement

Lived experience- the actual experience of living in a particular place.

Levels of engagement
Electoral turnout- national elections. poor people, black and young are less likely to be on electoral roll. e.g young people didn't vote to remain for Brexit & elderly voted out.
Local elections- even less people voting. So called for compulsory voting.

Community groups- support for local groups . They can range from running local allotments, NIMBY groups (not in my backyard) e.g protests against fracking and fundraising. Organisations such as National Lottery allow this to occur by funding. 

HIGH electoral turnout and community groups indicate HIGH engagement

e.g Grampound, Cornwall
Village of 800 people, previously had problems with: cuts to services (villagers shopped outside town meaning shops closed and elferly struggled), 25% over 65, social isolation of elderly

Response: community coffee shop and shop, 257 households being shareholders. Also carnival held every year and 14 clubs as well as high electoral turnout.

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Affecting lived experience

Main factors:

Influence- being heavily involved in local groups decisions increases engagement, therefore caring about it

Membership- feeling a belonging and being accepted increases engagement

Other factors:

Age and length of residence- if old and long then high engagement and against change

Ethnicity- non-white British may feel lack membership/ acceptance

Gender- inequalities for females may have an effect on engagement

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CONFLICT  (lack of political engagement, ethnic tensions, inequality)

e.g 2011 London Riots.

Due to death of local black man by police & cuts to services.
3/4 were men, majority black and 24 or younger.
There was looting, theft, violence, fires and 3000 arrests after.

Response: £41 million invested into Tottenham Hotspur development, new leisure centres, improved town centres.

Other forms of conflict= Studentification

Areas such as Leeds often have more students than others due to higher education. These students have no regard for local environment, drunk people, crimes etc... causing authorities to take action and have less student housing

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Role of gov in regeneration: Infrastructure

Role of gov is considering level of inequality across the country. Reduce North-South divide.

Infrastructure- the basic economic (highways, sewage facilities) and social (hospitals, schools) physical systems of a place.

Main aims for infrastructure regeneration: high cost and longjevity

Departments involved:
Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG)- empowers local people and aims to 'create great places to live and work'

Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)- makes UK's image abroad positive and promotes cultural innovation e.g National Lottery

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)- promotes environmental stability as part of economic growth

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Infrastructure- High Speed Rail 2

High speed rail link between London and Birmingham only taking 49 minutes. Key to 'northern powerhouse' scheme as connects North to South. 

Cost £55.7 billion and take 20 years to build. 

Role of gov= fund it. They will experience positive economic multiplier effect by improved transport.

jobs created (Ec)
better connnections (S)
people less liekly to drive as fast (En)

very expensive and time consuming (Ec)
NIMBY- eye-sore (S)
Disturbance to environment and emissions released (En)

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Type of development

Local and national govs are the main players in regeneration and affect the type of development, in turn affecting economic regeneration of places.

Since 2010, Conservative gov less funding to schemes, whereas up to 2010 Labour pro-public sector so public housing.

Planning Laws- how land is used to create improved living environments. Tightly controlled by gov through plan-led system. National interests override local. Slow decision making can lead to investors being unwilling to commit, so house prices fall and residents can't move.

Planning for Fracking- (obtaining gas from shale rock) this helps secure energy supplies as it's alternative, so gov priority. BUT anti-fracking groups because of harmful environmetnal effects.

Planning for housing needs- Labour before 2010 (social housing schemes, Conservatives ('Right to Buy policy'  selling council homes so shortage of supply. resulted in empty houses, underinvestment, social changes: more elderly)

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Type of development continued

Deregulation of capital markets- (to do with shares and long term investment) In 1980s Margaret Thatchers Conservativer gov began derugulating (removing entry barriers) so encouraging foreign businesses and banks. e.g London Docklands. 

International Migration- immigrants increase GDP and tend to be young. 2010 onwards (Conservative) restrictions on immigrants. Only 'beneficial' allowed. There is uncertainty about what will happen to UK's migrants post-Brexit. Will a point system be created like Australia? 

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Sympathetic business environments & players

Local authorities are in competition for attractive business environments so develop local plans developed.

Science parks= designated area as a hub of advanced technology and research


  • aim is inward investment.
  • closely linked to the University and also London and Oxford 'Golden triangle' of knowledge
  • does cancer research
  •  successful at achieving aims as companies e.g Worldpay and Toshiba invested. the benefits for these companies are cutting edge tech, lots of knowledge based workers

socio-economic- Chambers of Commerce (network to improve businesses)
environmental- local preservation groups 
economic- trade unions (group of workers created to improve pay & working conditions)

conflict e.g London 2012 Olympics- residents forced to move for athletes.

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Regeneration Strategies - urban

Retail led- Westfield Shopping centre
£1.75 billion development to attract tourists and visitors going to the 2010 Olympics. 50% funded by Westfield Group. 
10,000 permanent jobs, 1000 student flats
floor tiled with 'Pave Green' converts energy from steps to electrical power
+ jobs and homes created, 'green' - congestion on roads, expensive, expensive housing

Culture led- Liverpool Waters
On the port of Liverpool. Used to be docklands converting it to commercial based e.g restaurants, bars and offices. Will cost £5.5 billion. Buildings designed to attract FDI, so Chinese style to reflect Shanghai. It will be government funded. 
+ jobs, tourists, relieve housing tensions - building will disrupt locals and environment

Sport led- Olympic Park
The area hosted the Olympic Games in 2012. After some temporary venues were removed and infrastructures built to ensure a lasting legacy. Olympic village has 2800 flats and apartments.
+ boosted the economy in area - expensive to build, congestion

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Regeneration Strategies - rural

Public and Private rural diversification- 
Agriculture based
producing and selling unusual products such as speciality cheeses, non-food crops e.g flowers, farming unusual animals e.g llamas, farm shops, craft-making

Non-agriculture based
converting farm buildings into venues for weddings/ parties, using land for campsites, clay pigeon shooting, paint ball, golf

Environmental schemes
conserving the environment through the Natural England Environmental Stewardship Scheme and planting woodland.

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Rebranding- making place more attractive to invest or live in

Urban Rebranding
Liverpool Waters- deindustrialised and rebranding the place based on industrial heritage by converting buildings etc
London Docklands/ Canary Wharf- converted from old docklands to impressive business environment with lots of FDI

Rural Rebranding
Heritage and Literary (Bronte Country, Yorkshire)- Jane Eyre inspired by the desolate landscape so visitors are taken to villages to see historical sites. + attracts tourists - ruins feel

Farm Diversification (Big Sheep, Devon)- had low visitor numbers so built 5 new attractions inc a rollercoaster. + more visitors - environmental degradation 

Outdoor Pursuits (Kielder Forest, Northumberland)- most remote place in England, lots of carniferous plants so outdoor 'playground' with rockclimbing, mountain biking. 
+ generated revenue from facilites & car park - tourists ruin environment

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Measuring success of Regeneration

Success of regeneration must be measured over short and long time period & compare.

employment data- more people in quaternay/ tertiary jobs = higher incomes 
house prices- the higher the house prices the more successful regeneration. increased demand

IMD- changes in indicators before and after regeneration measures success
life expectancy- improved shows better health in area

Local Built environment- e.g improved transport  links, retail space and green space has positive impacts on health and attracts people to live there

Global environment- Living Environment Deprivation: Indoors= quality of housing, structure, facilties - modern kitchen, insulation   Outdoors= air quality e.g nitrous dioxide, road traffic accidents

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Urban regeneration and players

STRATFORD OLYMPIC GAMES (publically funded as it can be accessed by everyone)

£13 billion injected into economy, giant sculpture 'Orbit' tourist attraction

social- 10,000 new homes, new culture and leisure spaces, affluent newcomers demanding better services, athletes housing sold although expesnive

environmental- housing is 0 carbon emissions and water efficient, green spaces

UK Central gov agency (LDDC)- aims to improve longer term so conflcit with local people and businesses who may not be benefitting from the scheme
Local Councils- trying to tackle inequality in area through small schemes so + Olmpic park regeneration as it will have a change.
Local economy businesses- some threatened by regeneration as won't be needed, others view as positive multiplier effect as there will be more visitors
Local people- against regeneration as they are experiencing no positive effects
Environmental stakeholders- for the regeneration due to 'green' efforts made

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Rural regeneration and Players

EDEN PROJECT, CORNWALL (partly funded by the EU and £37 million by Lottery)
A flagship project (large scale project aimed to make area more attractive) holding botanical plants in a well known infrastructure, which used to be a large clay pit.

reduced unemployment by 6%, 750,000 visitors in first year bringing money to area, 400 full time staff
social- traffic congestion journey time increased by 30 mins affecting locals
environmental- major source of pollution (ironic) 

EU- overall want to reduce inequality and improve remote Cornwall conditions
National gov- want to improve area for people and also boost economy
Local businesses- postivie multiplier effect as visitors stay in hotels, buy food etc when visiting
Local people- against the traffic congestion and increased visitor numbers due lived experience.
Environmental stakeholders- e.g National Trust. against due to poor efforts to help environment. Conflict with planners who designed it. 

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