Geography - regenerating places case studies


Deindustrialisation of the steel industry

  • nationally steel employs 30,000 people, often in areas with high unemployment rates - supports many other manufacturers in the wider supply chain (aerospace, defence and construction)
  • in 2015 Thai-owned SSI at Redcar, Teeside, closed with 2000 redundancies
  • India's TNC Tata shut Scunthorpe's steel plant with 4500 redundancies
  • branches of TNCs cut to reduce costs - cheaper Chinese imports, high energy costs, green taxes and the strong pound were all factors
  • approximately 4 other jobs will be lost for each steel worker redundancy as whole communities are affected (NEGATIVE MULTIPLIER EFFECT)
  • demonstrates how original 'winners' may become 'losers' from external processes
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the overheated south

  • lower relative importance of manufacturing for the economy of the South East means it has been less affected by deindustrialisation and recessions
  • during economic boom from 1997-2007 - region generated 37% of the UK's growth output
  • since 2008 - region has increased to 48% of growth output while every other region (apart from Scotland) has experienced relative decline
  • 1/4 of the population generated half of the UK's economic growth
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  • term universally understood in places offering higher education provision
  • students often cluster in certain areas of larger towns and cities - absence during most holidays and their sometimes antisocial behaviour when resident may cause conflicts
  • some areas students outnumber local residents e.g. Queen's University, Belfast - 50% of immediate housing around the campus is student occupied
  • Headlingly, Leeds - 2/3 of the 10,000 residens are students concentrated in 73 streets of terraced houses
  • Nottingham, Southampton and Winchester have similar hotspots
  • government wants to regenerate these areas by capping the number of houses in multiple occupation
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San Francisco

  • reputation for economic energy, cultural vibrancy and tolerance
  • 1990s - became the focus of California's new 'gold rush', home to global dot-com businesses e.g. Dropbox and Twitter
  • job growth in STEM biotech, life sciences and digital media companies
  • multiplier effect is fuelled by its technological and transportation infrastructure, high quality of life and highly skilled workforce
  • 'google effect' of gentrification (wealthy people move into a low income, working-class area, leading to higher house prices) of districts alongside google buses transporting workers to its mountain view campus - created discontent from some established, less-affluent displaced locals
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Rust belts and urban divides

  • some towns and cities have adapted since deindusrialisation and city authorities have managed to attract growth services and knowledge based jobs e.g. Pittsburgh (USA) and Manchester (UK)
  • Chicago - struggled and are now characterised by increasing poverty, declining population and are even near bankruptcy (Detroit)
  • UK, Bristol - 39% of its population having a degree, is more attractive to knowledge based investors than Doncaster - only 23% being graduates
  • Teesside - declining steel industry, may well develop into a mini version of the American Rust Belt
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  • struggling rural area
  • famous for its tourist function, with hotspots e.g. Newquay 
  • country is not deprived but there are neighbourhoods with consistently high levels of deprivation that they recieve European development funding
  • 2014 - average wages £14,300 annually compared with £23,300 in the UK - top 10 deprived places in Western Europe
  • 40% of households live on less than £10,000 a year
  • relative wealth of the region is depressed further because of high cost living - residents have less spending power than most of the UK and Europe
  • loss of its mining industry and contraction in agriculture and fishing sectors are all important cuases of the spiral of decline in Cornwall
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Itchen Valley - wealth corridor

  • retirement and commuter community
  • accessible rural place
  • 1900 residents in 4 adjacent villages
  • conserved scientific and ecological value
  • located a few miles from Winchester, the M3 and fast mainline rail services to London means that it has become a commuter hotspot 
  • influx of younger families - more schools and 4 pubs in the valley
  • house and land prices increased
  • few remaining farmworkers have children unable to afford local housing
  • Zoopla's ZED Index (average house prices) in 2015 for England as a whole was £298,313
  • Itchen Valley's postcode's value - £588,882 - close to London prices (£636,172)
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Llansilin, Powys - deprivation

  • 2011 census - Powys had 46.8% of rural communities within the most 'access to service' deprived 10% in the country - measured by services e.g. banks and average travel time to get to a food shop, GP surgery and pharmacy, primary and secondary school, post office, public library, leisure centre and toa petrol station
  • cars - essential element of life
  • village of Llansilin - population 700
  • less broadband and mobile phone coverage 
  • Zoopla's Index for average house prices here was £230,076 in 2015
  • Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation - area scored in the 50% least deprived in Wales (community safety, housing, health, employment and environment GOOD)
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Contrasting electoral districts

  • Westmorland and Lonsdale, Cumbria - sparsely populated, picturesque rural area including parts of the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Parks - includes market towns of Kendal, Kirkby Lonsdale and Windermere - 2015 national elections produced a reduced makority to the liberal democrat party
  • densely populated inncer-city 'Manchester central' has recently been expanding with more affluent communities moving in - regeneration and gentrification have improved inner-city living. Areas e.g. Moss Side and Hulme remain some of the poorest comprising of old terrace housing and many sink council estates. 2015 - turnout of registered voters was the lowest in the country resulting in an increased majority to the labour party
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Mayoral cities

  • 4 cities have directly elected mayors in England
  • success of local powers of the Greater London Authority from its 1999 inception, with charismatic leaders e.g. Boris Johnson, can be measured by improved strategic planning (e.g. 2012 Olympic Games)
  • 2012 - referendum in 9 large English cities incited to follow this local budgeting system only resulted in a 'yes' vote in 3 cities (Bristol, Doncaster, Liverpool)
  • if a new system is wanted by locals depends on how effective local councils have been historically, but the very low voting turnout was also a key factor
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Airport development

  • 2015 - after 12 years of debate, Airports Commission gave a clear and unanimous recommendation for an explansion plan at Heathrow including a 3rd runway - cost an estimated £18.6 billion - privately funded but some of the support infrastruture will be publically funded

Recommendation has polarised views:

  • anti-expansion: London's mayor; many MPs; local and national protest groups; some high profile celebrities
  • pro-expansion: business leaders. Heathrow airport argues that the hub operates near full capacity and, since the South East is the main earner of GVA (gross value added) in the UK, expansion is essential to keep up with demand - could generate £100 billion of benefits nationally, protect the current 114,000 local jobs and create over 70,000 new ones
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High Speed Two

  • HS2, London to Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds
  • key to the large scale Northern Powerhouse regeneration scheme
  • two phases - end dates 2026 and 2033, show the long period of time needed for such large infrastructure projects
  • great contoroversy about the costs, exact route of the line and its effect on those living nearby
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Cambridge science park

  • science aprks represent areas as being attractive for inward investment
  • private or public areas provide attractive environments, purpose-built buildings and infrastruture and advice and networking groups
  • first built - Stanford University (USA) - 1950s
  • UK there were more than 100, science parks employing around 42,000 people in 2015
  • Cambridge Science Park - closely linked tp the Universtiy - built in the 1970s on a redundant defence site - grew rapidly in the 1990s when life sciences began to flourish globally
  • expansion in the early 2000s has attracted many foreign TNCs
  • life science is now the 3rd largest UK growth sector economically
  • existing campus of the institute of Cancer research and the Royal Marsden hospital, already in the top five global cancer research and tratmenet facilities
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2012 Olympic Games


  • Clays Lane Estate was a housing co-operative development built in 1977, creating a new community for vulnerable single people in Newham, London
  • site was designed for the Olympic athletes' village and the 430 residents were forced to move
  • huge public oppositon and even a public inquiry
  • several small businesses were also evicted from the Olympic site e.g. Forman's salmon smokery
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Declining coastal communities

  • recieve special attention from the government because they often have higher than average deprivation levels
  • various reasons for their economic decline: many are seaside resorts witha tourism legacy, but which largely fell into a spiral of deprivation by 1970s when more holidays abroad and jet travel became commonplace
  • large numbers of retirees, unemployment, students, immigrants and poor quality health and housing are all contributary factors
  • some resorts (e.g. Bournemouth, Dorset) have managed to reinvent themselves by diversifying into a business and conference hub while holding on to its family and holiday image
  • developed into a stag/hen and clubbing hotspot
  • adjacent resource Boscombe was innovative in creating an artificial surf reef to try to re-image the town, funded by the sale of a car park to Barratt Homes which built exclusive flats called Honeycombe Chine
  • 1990s - central government schemes e.g. Single Regeneration Budget, used in Boscombe's town centre were important in tackling deprivation but the problems have remained and even increased
  • current policies overseen by governments Big Lottery Fund with a focus on fostering economic growth. 2015 - spent £119 million and attracted £200 million in inward invesment created 12,000 jobs
  • projects e.g. Europe's first National Coastal Academy in Bournemouth
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Powys regeneration programme

  • an example of a co-ordinated and integrated approach to econmic and community regeneration in a rural area
  • funded by the Welsh government and EU using the LEADER programme (Links between actions for the development of the rural economy)
  • key source for funding for deprived rural areas, using local knowledge of the value of a place to promote grass roots, community-led rural development
  • 2011 - 2013 grants of over £4 million helped 310 business and community projects across Powys creating 36 full time jobs and safeguarding 80 more
  • next ohase runs from 2014-2020
  • Powys County Council helps to deliver this support through projects called Sustainable Tourism, Farm Diversification and Resilient Powys
  • grants are given for new glamping sites, welding workshops, wildlife tourism and projects showing a 'sense of place'
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Liverpool Waters

  • the Atlantic Gateway project is nearly 65km long
  • £75 billion growth corridor from the Port of Liverpool to Manchester
  • Liverpool waters - covers 2km of the water front with plans for 9000 flats, shops, office space, a new cruise terminal and cultural buildings designed to attract Chinese businesses relecting the twinning of the city with Shanghai
  • flagship 55 storey Shanghai Tower will be the tallest skyscraper outside London
  • mayor views the scheme 'unprecedented in its ambition, scope and potential to regenerate a city'
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Kielder water and forest park

  • in Northumberland
  • one of England's most remote villages altered by the creation of Europe's largest coniferous plantation in the 1930s and a reservoir in 1975
  • attracts 345,000 visitors annually
  • differs from a national park because it has no major national funding, and generates revenue from car parking and the facilities on site
  • conservation is also integral to its plans since Kielder has rare red squirrels
  • the Observatory for Dark Skies is attracting 'astrotourism'
  • special human made place demonstrates how large numbers of players can work together successfully
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Brontë Country - rebranding

  • moorland of the Pennine Hills in west Yorkshire and east Lancashire was the inspiration for the classic literature of the Brontë sisters - Wurthering Heights and Jane Eyre
  • marketed to attract visitors and revenue
  • village of Haworth, the Brontës' birthplace has become a hotspot for tourists
  • cobbled high street with small stone houses was once used by swearshop type textile weavers and has been preserved from the early 19th century
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South Glasgow - economic gap

  • by the 1950s the original tenements built for Victorian industrial workers has a reputation for poverty, overcrowding and poor public amenities with gang culture and violence
  • redevelopment programme replaced tenements with high rise concrete tower blocks - poorly constructed and the design forested crime - poor management led to alternative strategies
  • Crown Street regeneration project - 1990s - attractive varied designs, spacious flats and areas with employment spaces closed the gap and exceeded Glasgow's average economic growth
  • unemplyoment fell by 31% between 2004 - 2012
  • percentage of income deprived people including those on welfare benefits fell by 35%
  • Glasgow only had an average drop in unemployment of 16% and a 21% drop in income deprived citizens
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poverty in Newham, London

  • continuing cycle of poverty
  • once people better themselves, they move out but are then replaced by another set of poor people
  • 2014 - 36% of residents in Newham had no recognised qualifications, double the city average; 50% earned less than the london living wage and 20% were illegal workers on less than the minimum wage
  • parts of the borough near the 2012 Olympic site (e.g. Westfield) saw the biggest price rise in the country in 2015
  • Newham Borough Council promotes its place abroad as an 'Arc of Opportunity'
  • 2013 - attracted £1 billion, 35 acre business park investment by the Chinese company Advanced Business Park to another of its derelict sites - the Royal Docks
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the Glasgow effect

  • boys in the deprived area of Calton had an average life expectancy of 54 years compared with 84 years in affluent Lenzie, 12 km away
  • pattern emerged in the 1990s
  • efforts to combat this have centred on the pyschology of health promotion rather than prohibition
  • the Scottish government launched 4 main initiatives; Equally Well, Achieving Our Potential, a Child Poverty Strategy abd the Early Years Framework - designed to tackle poverty, income inequality, health inequalities and to ensure that all children are given the best possible start in life
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Broadwater Farm Estate

  • Tottenham, London
  • infamous for its deadly riot in 1985
  • several attempts at regeneration
  • high-density housing development accommodating 4000 people with one of the most ethnically diverse communities in Europe
  • remians one of the poorest areas in London
  • the Broadwater Farm Residents' Association is held up as a model of successful community-led regeneration, campaigning for better facilities and standards
  • lastest regeneration scheme involves some of the advisors and planners involved in the Olympic Park
  • re-imagining the built environment  is seen as essential
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large and small scale schemes

  • Salford Quays is a successful, innovative cultural flagship project
  • 19th century - Salford Docks together with the Manchester Ship Canal were integral to Manchester and the north west's success
  • deindustrialisation led to polluted waterways and derelict wasteland transformed from the 1980s into a centre for commerce, retail, the arts and sports
  • choice to relocate there by the BBC and the development of the UKs first 'media city' costing £550 million has led to global prestige again
  • Salford Quays has become a desirable residential location with a growing location
  • city authority was the key stakeholder
  • research group Rethinking Cities suggests success depends on place details, e.g. the availability of community activites, perception of safety and safe play areas
  • role of greenery, sympathetic landscaping and even colour can be important
  • level of funding for such projects has been far less, so charities and community volunteers have led their development
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Silver Hill, Winchester

  • 2008 mixed land-use proposal supported by Winchester City Council was contested by pressure groups - including Winchester Deserves Better which attracted 1000 people in a Facebook petition
  • regeneration is supported but not at this scheme since it lacked affordable housing and had futuristic intensive architecture for the centre of the historic city
  • High Court found the council to have acted unlawfully and the scheme delayed even further, creating planning blight
  • conflict matrix can be made based on a redevlopment scheme 
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North Antrim coast

  • the Giants Causeway area was designated a World Heritage site in 1986 because of its unique geology and striking landscape
  • huge number of stakeholders involved in any development decisions
  • plans to develop a £100 million golf resort close to the conserved area were disputed in court for more than a decade before being approved in 2013
  • opponents - the National trust and UNESCO thought the landscape change so close to the protected coastline was inappropriate despite the potential job creation from its proposed facilities
  • approved - the proposal was eventually shelved as it was unable to raise the necessary finances
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Mixed success projects

  • the Millenium Commission helped create 225 projects with £1.3 billion of Lottery money included the Eden project, O2 arena, Tate modern 
  • high risk imaginative and futuristic ideas were used
  • only 3 of the projects were really unsuccessful and actually closed
  • the Earth Centre in Doncaster was a rural ex-colliery redeveloped at a cost of £55 million as an environmental tourist centre
  • it failed to attract enough target audience and shut in 2004
  • now been turned into a children's outdoor adventure car park and its car park may be redeveloped into a large housing scheme
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rural regeneration schemes

  • Llanmadoc, Wales is a fairly remote rural village dominated by second homes
  • 2007 - 150 local residents paid £50000 for local shares to open a community shop, post office and cafe in an old barn run by 30 volunteer staff
  • scheme proved so successful benefiting tourists as well, that is moved to a larger purpose built shop in the village
  • grants were given by the Welsh Government and Swansea city council
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