Reduce CVD

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Alcohol

  • Heavy drinking raises blood pressure, contributes to obesity, irregular heartbeat.
  • Excess alcohol result in tissue damage, increase risk of CVD. 
  • Liver functions; processing carbohydrates, fats, proteins, detoxification, removal/destruction of alcohol. Damage liver cells.
  •  Impairs ability to remove glucose and lipids from blood. Some ethanol can end up in VLDLs, increasing risk of plaque deposition. 
  • Small protective effect of alcohol, compared with abstinence. 
  • Moderate alcohol consumption is correlated with higher HDL cholesterol levels.
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Reduce risk of CVD

Stop smoking, maintain low blood pressure, maintain low blood cholesterol level, more physical exercise, moderate/no use of alcohol. 

ACE inhibitors; antihypertensive drugs: Reduce the synthesis of angiotensin II. This hormone causes vasoconstriction help control blood pressure. Prevent hormone being produced from angiotensin I, Cause vasoconstriction lowers blood pressure. Dizziness, reduces liver function, dry cough. 

Calcium channel blockers; antihypertensive drugs: Block calcium channels in muscle cells in arteries. Failure of calcium to enter cell prevents contraction of muscle, vessels don't constrict, lowers blood pressure. Headaches, dizziness, swollen ankles. People with heart failure; symptoms worse/fatal

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Reduce risk of CVD; antihypertensive

ACE inhibitors; antihypertensive drugs: Reduce the synthesis of angiotensin II. This hormone causes vasoconstriction help control blood pressure. Prevent hormone being produced from angiotensin I, Cause vasoconstriction lowers blood pressure. Dizziness, reduces liver function, dry cough.

Calcium channel blockers; antihypertensive drugs: Block calcium channels in muscle cells in arteries. Failure of calcium to enter cell prevents contraction of muscle, vessels don't constrict, lowers blood pressure. Headaches, dizziness, swollen ankles. People with heart failure; symptoms worse/fatal

Diuretics: Increase volume of urine produced by kidneys, rid body of excess fluids and salt. Decrease in blood plasma volume and cardiac output, lowers blood pressure. Dizziness, nausea, muscle cramp.

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Reduce Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Cholesterol-lowering drugs; statins: Inhibit enzyme involved in production of LDL cholesterol. Study shows statins quickly reduce risk of heart disease and stroke. Linear relationship between reductions in LDL cholesterol and reduction in incidence of major vascular events.Effects of statins: Increase risk of death by non-vascular causes, risk of developing cancers.

Anticoagulants; reduce blood clotting: Blood clots less likely to form. Less chance vessel being blocked, reducing risk of CVD. Treat already existing clots>prevent getting larger, prevent new. Reduction of blood clots> excessive bleeding if injured, fainting, swelling of tissue.

Platelet inhibitory drugs: Type of anticoagulants. Prevent platelet clumping together to form clot. Reduce chance of vessel blocked. Rashes, nausea, liver function problems and excessive bleeding after serious injury.

Diet; protection against CVD: Include; energy balanced, reduced sat fat, more polyunsaturated fats, reduced cholesterol, reduced salt. Soluble fibre;traps cholesterol, prevents absorption. Fruit and veg; antioxidants. Food contain sterols/stanols; reduce cholesterol> competition

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