Antihypertensives reduce high blood pressure
These drugs include;
Diuretics - which cause more urine to be reduced, therefore reducing volume of blood
Beta-blockers - ehich reduce the strength of the heartbeat
Vasodilaters - which widen the blood vessels
All of these reduce blood pressure, so there is less damage occuring to the walls of the arteries. This reduces the risk of atheromas forming and blood clots
Benefits - all work in different ways, so can be given in combination. Blood pressure can be monitered at home, patient cam see if drugs are working
Risks - Palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms, fainting, headaches, and drowsiness are all side effects caused by the pressure becoming too low. Other reactions include allergic reactions and depression.
Plant Statins reduce cholesterol in the blood
Plants contain chemicals called stanols and sterols - these reduce cholesterol in humans by reducing the amount of cholesterol absorbed by the gut.
A lower blood cholesterol level reduces atheroma formation, which reduces the risk of CVD
You can buy foods with added plant statins
Benefits - Statins reduce risk of developing CVD
Risks - They can reduce the absorbtion of some vitamins from the gut
Anticoagulents reduce blood clotting - blood clots are less likely to form at sites of damage in artery walls. Less chance of a blood vessel becoming blocked by a blood clot.
Benefits - can be used to treat people who already have blood clots or CVD, preventing any existing blood clots from growing any larger and any new clots from forming. Cant get rid of existing blood clots.
Risks - If person is badly injured, the reduction of blood clotting can cause excessive bleeding, which can lead to fainting or even death. Others side effects include allergic reactions, osteoporosis and swelling of the tissues. Can damage the fetus during pregnancy.
Platelet Inhibitory Drugs
Platelet Inhibitory Drugs (e.g. aspirin) also reduce the formation of blood clots, they are a type of anticoagulant.
They work by preventing platelets clumping together to form blood clots. They reduce the formation of blood clots, reducing the chance of a blood vessel becoming blocked by a clot.
Benefits - be used to treat people who already have blood clots or CVD
Risks - side effects such as rashes, diarrhoea, nausea, liver function problems and excessive bleeding- especially after a serious injury.
A good way to remember what anticoagulants are and what antihypertensives are...
AntiCoagulants - C is for blood clot, which these drugs reduce
AntiHypertensives - H is for high blood pressure , which these drugs reduce