smoking - risk of CVD
smoking is one of the major risks to cardiovascular disease.
the toxins have a bad affect on the circulatory system.
affect of smoking on circulatory system.
there are 4 main affects of smoking on the circulatory system:
1. Haemoglobin in red blood cells carries carbon monoxide instead of oxygen reducing the supply of oxygen to cells. atherosclerosis will reduce blood flow through arteries to the heart and brain, so further shortage of oxygen rich blood will increase heart rate as the body tries to provide enough oxygen to cells.
2. nicotine is smoke stimulates the production of adreniline which causes an increased heart rate and also causes arteries to constrict raising blood pressure.
3. the toxins found in smoke can damage the lining of arteries and trigger atherosclerosis.
4. smoking has also be linked to a reduction in HDL cholesterol level.
lack of exersise- risk of CVD
A lack of exersise is a risk of developing CVD.
Exersise not only helps to maintain a healthy weight but also increase HDL cholesterol levels in the blood.
A person who is physically active is much more likely to survive a stroke.
inheritance - risk of CVD
Inheritance of a defective allele is a risk factor for CVD
genes and CHD and CVD
there are some single gene disorders that icrease the risk for coronary heart disease.
the inheritance of CVD is not is not down to a single case of one faulty gene , there are several gens that can affect your likelihood of developing CVD.
the apolipoprotein gene has been associated with coronary heart disease.
apolipoprotein are the protein components of lipoproteins. they are formed in the liver and intestines and are important in creating the structure of lipoproteins
CVD is a multifactorial disease, meaining it results from physical enviroment, social enviroment, lifestyle behaiviour and inheritance.