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Slide 1

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What is a risk?
What are epidemiological studies?…read more

Slide 2

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Risk describes the probability that a particular
event will happen
The probability is the mathematical chance or
likelihood of an event occurring…read more

Slide 3

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Epidemiology is the study of how often
diseases occur in different groups of people
and why.
A key feature of epidemiology is the
measurement of disease outcomes in relation
to a population at risk. The population at
risk is the group of people, healthy or sick,
who would be counted as cases if they had
the disease being studied…read more

Slide 4

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Large sample size- the bigger the study, the more
meaningful the result.
One variable changes while all others are
controlled. Lifestyle, diet, genetics etc. are difficult to
Longitudinal study- following the same group of people
over a long period of time.…read more

Slide 5

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Validity- The study correctly tests the aim
Reliability- How consistent the results are. When you repeat
an experiment and get the same results, it is reliable.
Precision- How accurate the study was carried out
Biased- who carried the study out, who funded it and where it
was published. Do any of these factors affect the study?…read more

Slide 6

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CVD is a disease of the heart or blood vessels
A risk factor is any attribute, characteristic or exposure of
an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a
disease or injury.
Factors you can't change Factors you can change
Genetics ·Arteries more easily damaged Diet ·Many correlations between
·Mutations in genes affecting dietary habits and levels of CVD
HDL:LDL levels in blood
Gender ·Oestrogen gives women more Blood Should be sustained
protection from CVD pre-meno. Pressure
Age ·Elasticity and width of arteries Smoking Correlation and causation shown
decrease with age as chemicals physically damage
artery linings
Physical Regular exercise reduces the risk
Inactivity of CVD greatly by reducing blood
Obesity Increases risk of CVD due to
build up of lipids and type II
diabetes…read more

Slide 7

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