Medical Issues Part 1.
IVF: The egg from a woman is fertilised outside the womb, then replaced after its fertilised.
AIH: *Artificial insemination by husband* sperm is inserted in a woman.
Egg donation: Donated by another woman,fertilised by IVF using husbands sperm.
Surrogacy: Fertilised then put into another womans womb.
Islam beliefs on genetic engineering: God has made up every individual person and only he can look after it.
Islam Beliefs pm Transplant surgery: Nothing should be removed from the body, taking parts from one body to another is acting as god.
SANCTITY OF LIFE= LIFE IS HOLY AND BELONGS TO GOD!
Genetic Engineering: Deliberate modificiation of characters of an organism by the manipulation of the genetic material.
Medical Issues Part 2.
- Infertility. Roman Catholics: Only god has the right to have children, god intended procreation (having a child) to be a part of the sex act. Other Christian churches: Good to use technology to provide couples with the joy of children.The egg and sperm are from the husband and wife.
- Genetic Engineering. Liberal Protestants: Good aslong as its to cute diseases and not to make perfect humans. Roman Catholics: Ok aslong as its to cure diseases and does not use human embryos.
- Muslims accept AIH and IVF because: These are simply using medicine to bring about family life which all muslims are expected to have. The discarded embryos are not foetuses and there distruction can be justified by the doctrine of double effect.
Most Christians believe in transplant surgery because they believe in ressurection, the bible is full of statements about not exploiting the poor. Some Christians are against it as they believe humans can't act as god.
- Non religious arguments for Genetic Engineering: It offers the prospect of cures for currently incurable diseases. Research into stem cell cloning until we can use adult cells.
- Non religious arguments against Genetic Engineering: Were going against nature. Anything could go wrong.
- DONORCARD: have to sign up for it, some people think it should be allowed without permission.
Crime and Punishment Part 1.
Sin: An act against the will of god.
Crime: An act against the law.
Law: Rules made by Parliament and enforcable by the courts.
Justice: Due allocation of reward and punishment, the maintenance of what is right.
Muslim views: The Qur'an sets down lashes or amputation for certain crimes, and the Qur'an is the word of God which must be followed. VERY STRICT!
Christian Views: Jesus said that Christians should not judge other people. Jesus said that Christians should always try to settle their problems without having to use the courts. The church has always looked on itself as a wat to bring new life to criminals.
Prisoner of conscience: Nelson Mandela, someone confined for their opinions alone.
Whats the difference between a sin and a crime? A sin is an act agasinst god and a crime is an act against the law.
Crime and Punishment Part 2.
Non Religious FOR: If people know that they will lose their life if thet murder someone, there less likely to do it. Protects society.
Non Religious AGAINST: There are other punishments except death available.
Christian: Unchristian and can never be justified.
Muslim: Can be applied by a court for serious punishment. There is a place for punishment in this life aswell.
Theories of Punishment...
Retribution: the distribution of rewards or punishments.
Protection: Something that ensures safety and no harm.
Reform: to become something again.
Peace and Conflict Part 1.
Islamic Attitudes to war:
Greater and Lesser jihad are: greater= inside conflict, struggle in mind. Lesser= physical conflict.
Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Christian and Muslim attitudes: Muslims try to forgive those who have done wrong and try to resolve the conflicts because this is the teaching of the Qur'an. Muslims are also taught to forgive if they expect God to forgive them.
- Pacifism: A belief that they don't/can't be forced to fight in a war.
- JUST WAR THEORY: A war that is fought for the right reasons and in the right way.
- Nuclear Warfare: A military conflict or political strategy in whihc nuclear weapons are used.
- Chemical Warfare: Involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
- Biological Warfare: use of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, other diseases causing biological agents, sometimes as weapons.
Peace and Conflict Part 2.
Non religious: Everyone has the right to live a life free from fear. Bullying prevents peopel from achieving and contributing to society.
Religious: "Love thy neighbour". Not treating any fo Gods children with disrespect.
Pax Christi is an international Christian peacemaking movement, based on the gospel and inspired by faith.
Israel was ordered to give up on the occupied terrorists by the United Nations, but has refused to do so until the Palestines recognise Israel's boundaries.
Religion and the Environment Part 1.
5 main threats of pollution are: the greenhouse effect, acid rain, eutrophication, deforestation, radioactive pollution.
JEWISH NATINOAL FUND: environmenta in Israel, halt desertification.
Muslims believe God created us as his KHALIFA which means someone who looks after things for you. The Islamic attitude to the environment is: that this life is a test from God on which they will be judged at the end of the world.
Christians teach that God made the world and this is called creation. This means that we have a responsibility to be God's stewards. The belief that stewardship means sharing the resources fairly.
They also believe in stewardship this means: looking after the earth so it can be passed on to the next generation.
Natural resources can be divided into two types, RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE.
Religion and the Environment Part 2.
Non religious arguments about the environment include:
Government action: Must do something to reduce pollution on an international scale.
Science and Technology: Using energy sources which don't produce carbon dioxide, nuclear waste etc.
Alternative Lifestyles: Using natural products.
animal rights= the belief that animals have rights which shuld not be exploited by humans.
For: Animals are capable of suffering and experiencing pain. Rights are given to people whether they are capable of exercising them or not.
Against: To have rights means having a responsibility to act. Animals don't have riight because to have rights requires them to be self conscious. There an anomous entity.
Social Responsibility Part 1.
Situation Ethics was started by Joesph Fletcher. Deciding whats the most loving thing to do. Helps Christians to make decisions.
The Decalogue= the ten commandments.
THE WELFARE STATE= NHS, FREE EDUCATION, FREE DOCTORS AN HOSPITALS, CHILD BENEFITS.
the golden rule= Treat others as you would like to be treated.
First past the post: Easy to understands, simple. A definite answer, greater percentage of teh population want this. MP's independant.
Some people think proportional representation is better as its fairer to all parties,everyone gets a seat, Electors choose part, closer correlation to how many votes everyone gets.
Social Responsibilty Part 2.
The parable of the sheep and the goat is: people who do good things will go to heaven and people who do bad things won't.
Christianity and Politics.
Why christians shouldnt get involed in politics? Jesus said that religion should be seperated from Politics (new testament). Church leaders are spiritual advisors.
Why should Christians get involved in politics? Christians should help work for a place, help suffering and fair trading-all political issues.
The church helps people choose from right and wrong by: The priests: Ask there opinion. Prayer: Hope God gives them guidance. Church community: govering organisation that gives advice.
The bible is the holy book of Christians split into the new and old testament. Its considered the word of God. 10 Rules about how people should live. Parables.