Re-urbanisation

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Causes of re-urbanisation

Pull factors:

  • The derelict land left from suburbanisation etc leads to governments favouring the develoment of brown field sites over greenfield sites, so people attracted back by new appartments etc.
  • Urban development cooperations were set up in the uk to redevelop urban areas and make people move back.
  • Young people move for universities.
  • Young people move for the night life 
  • Once a few bigger businesses come back others tend to follow.

Push factors:

  • Lack of jobs  in rural areas.
  • Fewer entertainment facilities in rural areas.
  • High house prices from counter-urbanisation.
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Impacts of re-urbanisation on city

+Economy boosted  as shops and services open

+Jobs created so reduces unemployment an in turn reduces crime.

+Tourism is increased and this will give more money to area to redevelop further.

+Local schools benefit, however the wealthy people that hve moved in may send children to private.

-Original residents on low incomes may not be able to affor the area anymore.

-Tension between old and new residents which may result in crime.

-Jobs are for skilled professionls that previous residents are unqualified for.

-Shops become too expensive for origional residents as they are designer nd this means old residents have to shop elsewhere.

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Managing the impacts of re-urbanisation

Guarentee affordable housing. E.g. in Camden North London 25% of new homes have to be affordable to previous residents.

Improve Skils of existing tenants etc to raise employment levels. E.g. City Gateway is a charity set up in London Docklands.

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Background, London Docklands

  • During the 19th and early 20th century, London docks were globlly importanant, with a lot of economic activity.
  • Changes in the shipping industry lead to a decline, as boats became larger and London was not large or deep enough to accomidate them.
  • 1980- large areas of the ddocklans were derelict and 150000 people lost jobs. 20% of the housing  was not habitable and there was poor transport links with the rest of london.
  • London Docklands Development Corperation (LDDC) was created in 1981 to redevelop the area. 
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Positive impacts London Docklands

1)Enterprise zone (area of lower taxes and relaxed planning laws) was brought in from 1982-92.

  • By the end of the 20th century (1998) 2700 businesses were trading in the docklands.
  • The area had attracted £7.7billion of private investment. 
  • Crated jobs, by 1998, 85000 poeple worked there.

2)Housing- 24000 new homesand 6250 housing association or local authority houses.

3)Transport-

  • DLR (docklands light railway) opend in 1987 and meant journey times were less that 20 mins to central London. 
  • Pedeatrian and cycle routes added to make travel easier and safer.

4) Public facilities incl. water sports center, Surrey Quays shopping complex and health centres.

5) New schools along with old ones refurbished.

6) Better  environment  was created with docks refurbished, outdoor spaces and an ecology park.

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Negative impacts and management LDDC

Negative impacts

  • Conflict between old and new residents, as origional residents felt LDDC favoured affluent people.
  • Origional residents found it hard to find work as they were skilled for the docks and not for new businesses such as banking. so 36% of the residents in 1981 were unskilled or seim-skilled.

Management

  • Some area agreed that 40% of new housing had to be affordable to origional residents.
  • Training centres were set up to help with numeracy, literacy and IT. 1984 the IT centre was set up and it trained 16-18 year olds in basic electronics and gave them work experience and qualifications at the end. 
  • Job agency, Skillnet set up to help people find work in the area they are good in, eg, construction.
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