Assumptions of psychodynamic approach
Assumption 1 Behaviour is influenced by the three
parts of the mind.
Three parts that develop at different stages in our lives.
• Id-This is the impulsive part of our personality and is present at birth. It demands immediate satisfaction, referred to as the pleasure principle.
• Ego-This is the conscious, rational part of the mind that
- develops age of two.
- work out realistic ways of balancing the demands of the id.
- reality principle.
- Forming at age of four.
- child’s sense of right and wrong as well as his or her ideal self.
- The superego seeks to perfectand civilise our behaviour.
- It is learned through watching others.
Assumption 2 Behaviour is infl uenced by different levels of consciousness and ego defences
- Mind like an iceberg – much of what goes on inside the mind lies under the surface.The preconscious and unconscious mind.
- The conscious mind is logical.
- The unconscious mind is ruled by pleasure-seeking.
- The unconscious mind expresses itself indirectly through dreams.
- Confl icts between the id, ego and superego create anxiety.
- Ego defences-regress to an earlier developmental stage.
- Displacement (transfer of impulses from one person or object to another).
- Projection (undesirable thoughts are attributed to someone else).
- Repression (pushing painful memories deep down into our unconscious mind)
Assumption 3 Behaviour is infl uenced
by early childhood experiences
- In childhood traumas are repressed.
- For example, a child may experience the death of a parent early in life and repress associated feelings.
- Later in life, other losses may cause the individual to re-experience the earlier loss, and can lead to depression.
- Previously unexpressed anger about the loss is directed inwards,towards the self, causing depression.
- There are key developmental stages in early childhood.
- Fixation on any one of these stages may have a lasting affect on the individual’s personality.
Assumptions of biological approach
Assumption 1 Behaviour can be explained in terms of
different areas of the brain
- Different areas of the brain have been identified for certain functions.e.g cerebral cortex covers the surface of the brain like a tea-cosy, and is much folded and grey in colour. This is the region of the brain responsible for higher cognitive functions.
- The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes.
- The most important is the frontal cortex or lobe is responsible for fine motor movement and thinking.
- Other lobes include the occipital lobe, which is associated with vision.
- Underneath the cortex there are various subcortical structures.
- such as the hypothalamus, which integrates the ANS.
Assumption 2 Behaviour can be explained in terms of
- Neurons are electrically excitable cells that form the basis of the nervous system.
- The flexibility of the nervous system is enhanced by having many branches at the end of each neuron so that each neuron connects with many others.
- One neuron communicates with another neuron at a synapse, where the message is relayed by chemical messengers (neurotransmitters).
- These neurotransmitters are released from presynaptic vesicles in one neuron, and will either stimulate or inhibit receptors in the other neuron.
Assumption 3 Behaviour can be explained in terms of
- Hormones are biochemical substances that are produced in one part of the body and circulate in the blood
- They are produced in large quantities but disappear very quickly. Their effects are slow in comparison with the nervous system, but very powerful.
- testosterone (a male hormone) and oestrogen (female hormone).
- Some hormones such as adrenaline are also neurotransmitters.
Assumptions of cognitive Approach
One assumption of the cognitive approach is that mental processes can be studied scientifically.
- Lab Experiments
- Quantitive data
Human mind compared to a computer
- Input--> Process-->Output
- Perception, attention, memory.
- Multistore model of memory-(Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968)
Behaviour can be explained by mental processes
- Schema-a mental structure that represents an aspect of the world.
- When we see something new we make a new schema.
Assumptions of behavioural approach
The behaviourist approach believes that the way a person is and behaves is due to
life experiences. A person may be rewarded or punished for certain behaviour, and this
determines how they behave in future. People might also imitate what they see others