Non-verbal communication (NVC)
NVC is the process of transferring a message without the use of language. For example through use of gesture, body language, facial expressions and posture.
Verbal communication is the process of speaking to each other using language. So sign language partially counts as verbal communication.
Paralinguistics are the vocal features which accompany speech, these can be tone of voice, emphasis and intonation.
Functions of NVC
The functions of NVC are.....
- To express emotions
-To express attitudes
- To accompany speech in managing the cues of inteperaction between speakers and listener
- Presentation of personality
- Ritual (as in greeting)
Regulating flow of conversation
In order to regulate the flow of conversation we use techniques such as...
- Repeating (Using gestures to strengthen a verbal message)
- Conflicting (When verbal and Non-verbal send out conflicting messages)
- Complementing (When verbal and non-verbal send out the same message)
- Substituting (Using NVC instead of Verbal communication)
-Regulating (Non-verbal behaviour used to regulate a conversation)
Ekman suggested that there were six universal faces we call these Ekman's faces.
The emotions are...
- Happiness :D
- Sadness :(
- Anger >:(
- Fear :S
- Surprise :O
- Disgust :P
Sackheim also used faces except sackheims faces were used to identify which side of your brain was strongest.
People are shown two face one with an upwards smile on the right hand side the other on the left if you think the rightside smile is the happier of the two then you have a right side brain left if you think left side is happier.
Open posture - When a person indicates friendliness through use of unfolded arms and legs, hands not touching and elbows far apart.
Closed posture - When a person indicates hostility through use of folded arms and legs and hands touching.
When you copy another persons posture in order to indicate that you are together or that your are friends. This can be used to flirt or to sell things.
Examples of Facial gestures
Eye rolling - rotating the eyes in order to show boredom.
Nodding - shows agreement or that you are listening.
Head shaking - Opposite of nodding
Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour (1971)
A: To investigate how well attitudes can be shown through posture
P: 3 different verbal statements were issued to PP's by a confederate using one of three non-verbal styles.
F: The non-verbal message greatly outweighed the verbal one.
C: They concluded that NVC is 12.5 times more powerful than verbal communication
Hall (1966) defined the different personal distances, they are.
Intimate - 0 - 0.5 metres - Used in intimate relationships
Personal - 0.5 - 1.5 metres - Used by close friends and acquaintances
Social - 1.5 - 4 metres - For more formal situations such as a business transaction
Public - 4+ metres - For more social situations like at a lecture or a concert
Factors that can affect this our culture, and gender, and difference in status.
Felipe & Sommer (1966) Mental institution
A: To see the effect of invading someones personal space.
P: When a person sat on a bench a confederate came and sat down next to them about 15cm away if the person moved the "invader" followed. The time of when they left was recorded and compared.
F: 20% of the experimental group left in one minute compared to 0% of the control group (people who's space was not invaded) and 50% after nine minutes compared to 8% of the controls.
C: When personal space is invaded we feel uncomfortable.
We can apply this for use in schools or in theaters where seats can be organised to discourage discussion and encourage attention.
Felipe & Sommer (1966) Library
A: To investigate the affect of invading somebodies personal space.
P: A person who sat down in a library then had a confederate sit next to them and move their chair closer.
F: 70% of PP's left left after 30 minutes compared to only 13% when a one chair gap was allowed.
C: When personal space is invaded we feel uncomfortable and we adjust our surroundings to make us feel more comfortable.
Gender differences in personal space.
J.fisher and D.byrne did a study in which when a person was sitting alone in a library a confederate either came and sat next to them or across from them.
They found that women did not mind being sat next to but disliked being sat opposite of.
Men on the other hand where the opposite.