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Memory: Non-Verbal Communication:
Verbal and Non-Verbal communication
Retrograde & Antegrade Amnesia Eye Contact
Interference Case Study Non-Verbal
Case Study Levels of Processing Communication
Multi-Store Model Case Study Paralinguistics
Research Methods: Learning:
Sampling Methods + Advantages & Classical Conditioning
Disadvantages Case Study Classical
Experimental Designs Conditioning
IV & DV Behaviour Shaping
Standardised Procedures Flooding + Phobias
Keywords Case Study Bystander
Intervention (Latané & Darley)
Practical Implications on Social
Obedience + Conformity Influence…read more
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SLIDE 1 Keywords:
MEMORY Encoding Taking in
information from our
senses and changing it so
it can stored.
Levels Of Processing Multistore Model
information until it is
Aim-To see if the type of questions asked about Aim-To see if rehearsal was needed in order
to store information in the STM
words affected the number of words recalled.
Method-Participants were given a list of words Method-Participants were asked to learn Retrieval Taking
and were asked questions about the words: Was numbers in sets of three. They were then information from
the word in capital words?, Did the word rhyme asked to count backward from eighteen storage.
with anything?, Did the word fit into a before recalling the sets of numbers. Retrograde Amnesia
sentence?. They then had to identify the words
they were asked about from a bigger list of
Results-All the participants had forgotten Loss of memory for
words. every piece of information after the events that happened
Results-Participants were able to identify 70% eighteen seconds. before the brain damage
of the words that were semantically processed, Conclusion-We need to rehearse occurred.
35% of the words that were phonetically information if we want to keep it in our
processed and 15% of the words that were STM.
Being unable to learn
structurally processed. Evaluation Points: new information after
Conclusion-We are able to recall words better The model is oversimplified, in
the more deeply they are processed.
particular when it suggests that both
suffering brain damage.
Evaluation Points: the STM and LTM work together in a Proactive Interference
It doesn't't explain how the deeper uniformed fashion. We now know that when previously learnt
processing results in better memories. this isn't so. information interferes
Deeper processing takes more effort than
The model is supported by studies of with new information.
shallow processing, and it could be this,
amnesiacs: for example the HM case Retroactive Interference
rather than the depth of processing that
study. HM is still alive but has marked
makes it more likely people will remember.
problems in his LTM after brain surgery.
When new information
something you have
Ecological Validity already learnt.
Ecological Validity is the degree to which behaviour that is observed and recorded
in a study reflects behaviour that occurs in a natural setting.…read more
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SLIDE 2 Keywords:
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal Communication-
Conveying a message
using vocal sounds. For
Non Verbal Communication Paralinguistics (Facial expressions)
Aim-To see if tone of voice affects how we Non Verbal
Aim-To look at the relationship between facial
interpret verbal messages. expressions and the different hemispheres of Communication-
Method-Different groups were asked to the brain. Conveying a message
listen to different messages. Some heard a Method-He cut pictures of people showing without using vocal
friendly message in a hostile tone while different emotions down the middle and made sounds. For example:
others heard a hostile message in a friendly new images using two mirror images of each Texting.
tone. half. The new images were shown to the
Results-It was found that tone of voice was Open Posture-Open
participants and asked which picture they
5 times more effective than the message preferred. posture is when a person
itself. Results-The participants said they preferred the can see your body. For
Conclusion-Tone of voice is very important picture on the mirrored left side because it example: your arms will
when interpreting verbal messages. looks `warmer'. be open, legs uncrossed
Evaluation Point Conclusion-That the left side of the face seems and shoulders back. This
Participants only had the tone of voice to express more emotion than the right. shows friendliness.
and message to base their Evaluation Point
interpretations on, in real life we Closed Posture-Closed
The pictures were static images and in real
usually have several other sources of life the faces we look at are in constant
Posture is when a person
information like facial expressions. motion. closes up the body, their
Practical Implication arms will be crossed, or
When speaking to people we should theirs legs crossed. This
If we want to gauge people's true emotion
make sure that our tone of voice
we should concentrate on their facial is a defensive position
matches our intentions so that our
expressions rather than their speech. and shows a lack of self
message is clear.
Paralinguistics-are all the
Eye Contact non verbal features that
Eye Contact is when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. Eye accompany speech.
contact is particularly important in conversation as it signals turn taking.…read more
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SLIDE 3 Standardised Procedures:
It is important to use standardised procedures to Keywords:
RESEARCH METHODS make the experiment unbiased, therefore it is vital
that they are all treated in exactly the same way. If
the variable which the
some people are treated differently, it could have an
affect on the results experimenter
Random Sampling: Stratified Sampling: Dependent Variable-is
Write the names on the list individually on The researcher identifies the different types of
pieces of paper, put it in a container, pick out people that make up the population then works
the variable that is
the number of names needed. out the proportions of each group needed to measured in the
Everyone has an equal chance at being make a representative sample. experiment.
chosen + Eliminates sample bias + represents Highly representative of the target population Extraneous Variable-are
the target population. + High Generalisability
variables which are not
Difficult to achieve + Expensive and time Difficult to do + Expensive and time
consuming. consuming. the independent variable
but could affect the
Opportunity Sampling: Systematic Sampling: results of the
The researcher goes to the target area and Chooses participants in a systematic order experiment.
uses people from the target population from the target population, like every 5th Generalisability-refers to
available at the time. participant on a list of name. how relevant the findings
Quick + Easy Provides a Representative sample of the of the experiment are on
Could be biased (Due to researcher only target population
the target population the
approaching certain people) + Not a Very hard to achieve + Costly and time
representative sample. consuming. experiment was
Anomalous Data-is data
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS that is inconsistent from
the results of the
Independent Measures: Repeated Measures: Matched Pairs:
Involves using two separate The same participants take part in A pair must be randomly assigned experiment.
groups: one in each condition. each condition of the IV. to the experimental group and Standardisation-
Avoids order effects such as Fewer people are needed. the other to the control group. Standardisation means
practice + Fatigue. May be order effects + Reduces extraneous keeping everything the
More people are needed so is participants may do better 2nd (Participant) variables + Avoids
more time consuming + time round (Practice effect) + order effects.
same to ensure that the
Differences between Their performance may be Impossible to match people experiment is fair.
participants may affect results. worse 2nd time (Fatigue effect) exactly unless identical twins.…read more
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SLIDE 4 LEARNING
Learning a relatively
permanent change in Behaviour
due to experience.
Classical Conditioning a
Levels Of Processing procedure during which an
Flooding animal or person learns to
Aim- To see if hungry dogs can be classically This process involves immediate/quick/full
conditioned to salivate to the sound of a associate a reflex action with a
exposure to the feared object until there is no new stimulus.
bell. fear response. The person is flooded with Unconditioned Stimulus a
Method- Before Conditioning: when the dog thoughts and actual experiences. stimulus that triggers a reflex
was presented with food (UCS), it salivated
as a reflex response (UCR). When the bell
was sounded (NS) nothing happened. During
Evaluation Unconditioned Response a
Flooding has been shown to treat some reflex response triggered by an
Conditioning: When the food was paired US.
with the sound of the bell, the dog salivated phobias successfully
Its quicker than other types of treatment Conditioned Stimulus a new
as a result of the food not of the bell but it stimulus presented with the
such as systematic desensitisation.
starts to associate the sound of the bell with unconditioned stimulus.
food. After Conditioning: The dog will start Conditioned Response the
to salivate when the bell is sounded on its Ethical Implications response that is learnt, and now
own. Can be seen as a very bad form of occurs when the conditioned
Results- The hungry dogs were classically treatment as it causes a lot of unnecessary stimulus is presented.
conditioned to salivate at the sound of a stress to the patient which can be Extinction when a conditioned
bell. psychologically damaging. response dies out.
Conclusion- A NS when paired with the UCS Flooding doesn't protect the participant Spontaneous Recovery when
will cause a conditioned response. and therefore can be seen as unethical. a previously forgotten
conditioned response suddenly
BEHAVIOUR SHAPING conditioned response is
produced when a similar
Leah would be taught to use a knife and fork in small steps. An example of a first step such as - stimulus to the original
simply picking up the knife and fork, or picking up food with the fork. At each step her conditioned stimulus is
behaviour would be reinforced. An example of appropriate reinforcement such as she could presented.
be rewarded with a toy/praise at each step. Reference to moving closer to the desired Discrimination the
behaviour. At the end of shaping, reward is only given for complete behaviour. conditioned response is only
produced when a specific
stimulus is presented.…read more