Paper 2 Psychology AQA Advanced Information.

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  • Created on: 03-05-22 09:35
What is Asch's Study?
The study was set up in order to investigate how people respond to group pressure.
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What was the method used in Asch's study?
123 American male students, (Naïve participants). Each naïve participant was put into a group of six to eight confederates who knew the real aim of the study and picked the obvious wrong answer.

In total 18 trials. 12 critical trials chose the wrong ans
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What was the results of Asch's study?
On the 12 'Critical' groups gave wrong answer's 36.8%.

25% of the participants gave the wrong answer, 75% conformed a least once. A few conformed most of the time.
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What was the conclusions of Asch's study?
Asch effect - The extent to which people conform even in an unambiguous situation, when the answer is clearly wrong.

However group there was a high level of group independence, and shows clear evidence of how people can resist the pressure to conform.
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2 Evaluations of Asch's study.
- One weakness is the results may only be relevant to 1950s America.

- Another weakness of this research is that the task and situation are rather artificial -

- Further weakness is that Asch's research is more reflective of conformity in individualist
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What are the 3 Social Factors in Conformity?
- Group Size

- Anonymity

-Task Difficulty
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Define Anonymity
Being 'Invisible' within a group, and that nobody knows who you are, so you feel less group pressure, leading to less conformity.
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Define Task Difficulty
If the task becomes difficult to answer, the answer becomes less certain and so other's look towards other people's answers for validation.
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Define Group Size
The greater the group size, the greater the pressure to conform but up to a point.

Such as his study saw people conform when he added more confederates up to 5-4 confederates where is stayed at a constant.
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What are Dispositional factors in Conformity?
- Personality
- Expertise
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Define personality?
A Locus of control also affect's conformity on how well your personality is affected by outside factors of you feel internally independently.
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Define Expertise in
Experience also increases you confidence in your opinions and knowledge so if someone tell something that is obviously false if you where in the expertise you are more likely to be confident.
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What was Milgram's Agency Theory?
Milgram's Agency theory proposes that an Individual sometimes acts as an agent for someone else thinking they will have all of the responsibility.
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What is the Agentic State?
Where they act on behalf of someone and would follow orders blindly.
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What is the Autonomous state?
Where they behave according to their own principles and feel responsible for their own actions.
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How does Authority play out in Milgram's Agency Theory?
A figure of Authority
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How does Authority and play into Milgram's Agency Theory.
- Authority - the agentic shift of autonomous to an agentic state occurs when a person perceives someone of authority.
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How does Culture play into Milgram's Agency Theory.
Most societies are structured in a Hierarchy with culture accepting and following the hierarchy figures who are superior to us.
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How does Proximity play into Milgram's Agency Theory.
How close is the authorities figure is close to you, obedience increasing as the closer they are.
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What are the 2 Evaluation points of Milgram's Agency theory.
One strength is that there is research support.

One weakness of the explanation is it doesn't explain why there isn't 100% obedience.

Another weakness is that it 'excuses' people who blindly follow destructive orders.
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What is Adorno's Theory of authoritarian personality?
Adornos theory was to find if Milgram's agency theory also linked towards the individual's personality.
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What was the concept of authoritarian personality?
- Some people have an exaggerated respect for authority.
- They are far more likely to obey orders.
- They also look down on people of inferior status.
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How does an Authoritarian person think?
(Cognitive style)
An authoritarian person likes a particular style of thinking of things being black and white such as the idea of all men are not bullies or some women are only emotional etc.
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How does an Authoritarian personality is made?
It is though to originate from childhood, when the child experience strict parenting, expecting loyalty and high standards and if done correctly will have unconditional love.
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How does Scapegoating do with an Authoritarian personality?
People who have this personality may offload their anger onto something else such as people who are socially inferior.
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2 Evaluation points of Adorno's Theory
- One weakness is that Adorno widea of authoritarian personality was based on a flawed questionnaire.

- Another weakness with the evidence is that the data is correlational

- One weakness of dispositional factors is that, on its own, it cannot explain a
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What is Piliavin's subway study?
His study was to look at helping behaviour. This helping behaviour is an example of prosocial behaviour - acting in a way that promotes the welfare of others. He also looked at bystander behaviour.
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What was the aim of Pilivain's study?
Was to instead of having it within a laboratory environment, observed it in a more natural setting. And to see if certain characteristics affected the likelihood of helping the person
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What was the method of Pilivain's study?
A team of four student researchers, on a NYC subway. 102 trials were conducted. One plays victim (male) stood next to the centre of the carriage and staged a collapse until he was helped. 38 trials, victim smelt of alcohol. 65 trials he appeared sober wit
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What was the results of Pilivain's study?
A person with a cane was helped 95% of the time and 50% who appeared drunk was helped.

People were as likely to offer help in larger groups compared to few people.
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What was the Conclusion of Pilivain's study?
The results of this study show that certain characteristics of the victim makes a difference to whether they receive help.
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What are the 3 points of evaluation of Pilivain's study?
S: - High realism - was conducted in an natural setting.
W: - Urban sample - they only conducted it in a city
S: - Qualitative data and Quantitative data - Comments by passengers as well the percentages go really good together.
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What is Deindividuation?
It is when someone in a group feels they are anonymous, leading to antisocial behaviour because they are just part of the group. Ceasing all rational thinking.
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What was Zimbardo's aim about Deindividuation?
To investigate deindividuation in adaption of Milgram's study of electric shocks.
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What was Zimbardo's method?
groups of four female undergraduates. tasked to deliver a (fake) electric shock to another student 'aid learning' 2 groups separated
G 1 - the individuated group wore normal clothes and introduced themselves.
G 2 - The deindividuated group, wore a large c
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What were the results of Zimbardo's?
Participant's in the deindividuated group were more likely to press a button that they believed would give shocks to the learner. They also held the shock button down for twice as long compared to the other group.
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What was the Conclusion of Zimbardo's study?
That anonymity and deindividuation increase the likelihood that people will act antisocially.
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What were the 3 points of evaluation?
W :- Not always antisocial - One weakness of Zimbardo's conclusion is that it doesn't always result in antisocial behaviour.
S :- Real world application - Can be used to manage crowds.
W: - Crowding - Antisocial behaviour may be due to crowding rather th
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What are the 2 Social Factors in Crowd and collective behaviour?
- Social Loafing
- Culture
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What is social loafing?
Social loafing, is when an individual in a group put in less effort, such as tug of war.
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What is Culture?
People in individualists culture like UK and US tend to make choices based on family and friends while. In a collectivist society china and Korea, make people base their decisions on their families and society in general.
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What are the 2 Dispositional factors in crowd and Collective behaviour?
- Personality
- Morality
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What is Personality?
People have a locus of control for higher or lower levels of conformity. People with an internal locus of control are less likely to be influenced by others in a crowd and follow their own personal norms.
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What is Morality?
Morals are our ideas of right and wrong. Some people have greater moral strength which means they believe in certain principles of right and wrong. And want to be more willingly follow them.
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What are the 4 usual functions of animal communication?
- Survival
- Reproduction
- Territory
- Food
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How does an animal uses communication for survival?
Alarm calls - Animals warning each other because of a predator
Also it can be expressed through body language such as a rabbit lifting its tail up.
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How does an animal uses communication for Reproduction?
Mating displays used to attract other members, such as male peacocks.
It can also be related to genes, the better genes to have such as vibrant colours can affect mating chance.
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How does an animal uses communication for Territory?
Animals make the use of scent marking. Usually by their urine or faeces. To discourage other animals invading such as rhinos
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How does an animal uses communication for Food?
Such as the bee dance from Von frith's study, also pheromone can be used to signal food a trail leading to the source.
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What was Von Frisch's Bee study?
To investigate why do bees in their colony 'dance'?
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What was the Aim of Von Frisch's Study?
To carefully describe the dances performed by the bees and explain how these enabled them to communicate with each other.
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What was the Method of Von Frisch's Study?
He observed the bees. And changed the environment around them by placing a food source within 10 - 0 metres as well placing away up to 300 metres. and observed them over a period of 20 years.
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What where the results of Von Frisch's study?
He found that worker bees tell other worker bees where sources of pollen are through 2 dances.
- The round dance, food is less than 100 metres away.
- The waggle dance, a more complex dance moving in a figure of 8, the slower it performs this dance the mo
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What were the conclusions of the Von Frisch's Study?
Showed that bees have quite a sophisticated form of animal communication. It can have evolutionary value because it helps survival.
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What are the 3 Evaluations of the bee study?
S: Scientific value, opened peoples eyes about animal communication.
W: Sound matters too - the bees had to hear as well see the dance not only one.
W: Bee do not always respond to the waggle dance.
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What is Non verbal communication and what is an example of it?
is communicating without words, such as body and facial language.
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What is verbal communication?
Communicating with words like talking to someone.
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What was Darwin's suggestion about non-verbal communication?
Non - verbal communication has evolved to a way of expressing emotions. Such as a dog barring its teeth sends signals of hostility.
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What was Darwin's comparison with the human behaviour on verbal communication?
He said that all animal are linked through evolution and many behaviours are seen in humans and animals. Such as smelling something disgusting you wrinkle your nose, this may be to increase your chance of survival by not breathing it in.
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What are serviceable habits?
Wrinkling one's nose and baring teeth are serviceable habits. We used it for other things such as survival but now usually we use it to show emotion and to express our selves.
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What are 3 Evaluations on Darwin's Theory of non-verbal behaviour?
S: Facial expressions
S: Newburn babies - them smiling so adults would care for them
W: Difficulty explaining cultural differences in non - verbal communication.
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What are the Evidence that non - verbal behaviour is learned?
Is that there are two contact cultures, Non and Contact. Non prefers a wider space of personal space while Contact usually are overbearing. Both cultures dislike each other the non contact, snobby and rude while the contact too overbearing. This shows non
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What is also another piece of non verbal behaviour is learned other than social space.
Gestures, some gestures can be interpreted in many ways. Either good or bad.
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Why has people have differences in culture?
- People observe other people in their culture on how to interact with others.
- Then they imitate this behaviour in order to identify themselves with.
( Social learning theory)
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What was Yuki's Study of Emoticons about?
To see if facial expressions are universal or not. Such as USA and Japan.
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What was Yuki's aim?
Japanese people focused on eyes while Americans focused on the mouth, to interpret emotion. They aimed to find out if this difference would be reflected in how different emoticons are understood by people in the East and West.
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What was Yuki's Method?
95 Students from japan and 118 Students from USA. All presented with six emoticons. Featuring 'happy' 'neutral' 'sad' mouths as well as eyes. They had to rate from 1 - 9 on how happy they each where.
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What was Yuki's Results?
Japanese students gave higher ratings to faces with happy eyes, even when the mouth was sad. American participants gave higher ratings when mouths were happy, even when the eyes where closed.
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What was Yuki's Conclusions?
Japanese and American people interpret facial expressions differently. This may be because of Social norms and cultural norms, in the US people are brought up to express themselves using mouth and eyes. Japan however wants them to hide their emotions so t
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What are the 3 Evaluations of Yuki's study?
W: Faces may not represent human faces
W: Only tested for Happy and Sad
W: The rating scale is quantitative data.
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What are the 4 details of the Autonomic nervous system?
- Homeostasis
- An automatic system
- Sympathetic nervous system.
- Parasympathetic system.
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What is Homeostasis?
Maintaining an internal balanced temperature state.
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Is ANS, Voluntary or automatic?
Automatic, for example our heart needs to be always be pumping to it is automatic.
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What is a Sympathetic nervous system?
Physiological arousal - breathing rate gets faster, heart beats faster, prepares the fight or flight reponse.
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What is a Parasympathetic nervous system?
Counteractions of the Sympathetic nervous system by producing opposite effects, returning the body to its normal state.
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What is the First stage of the Fight or Flight response?
Brian detects the threat, Hypothalamus identifies threat, Sympathetic division of the ANS is triggered.
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What is the Second stage of the Fight or Flight response?
Release of adrenaline.
ANS changes from parasympathetic rest state to aroused sympathetic state. Stress hormone is released.
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What is the Third stage of the Fight or Flight response?
Flight or Fight response.
Immediate and automatic.
Psychological changes due to action of adrenaline, increased heart rate and decreased digestion.
Gets the body ready to Fight or flight.
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What is the Fourth stage of the Fight or Flight response?
Once the threat has passed, Parasympathetic nervous system takes over.
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What is the James Lange theory of emotion?
Explaining emotions such as:
Event -> Arousal -> Interpretation -> Emotion.
However if there is no physical change their is no change.
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What are the 3 Evaluations of James's Lange theory of emotion?
S: Emotions do come after arousal
W: Cannon-bard theory - emotions can happen at the same time as Physiological arousal.
W: James- Lange theory may be too simple.
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What are the 3 Types of Neurons?
- Sensory carry messages from the PNS to the CNS
- Relay connect neurones to motor neurones, they also relay to other relays.
- Motor neurones carry messages from the CNS to effectors in our body.
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What are terminal button?
They are at the ends of axons and allow communication with the next neuron.
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How do neurons communicate?
via synaptic transmission, through neurotransmitters. A synapse is the space between two neurones.
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What is the Excitatory and Inhibitory effect?
Excitatory neurotransmitter increases postsynaptic neuron's charge, more likely to fire.

Inhibitory neurotransmitter increases negative charge less likely to fire.
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What are the 4 parts of the cerebral cortex
Frontal lobe, motor area, thinking an motor area controls movement at front of brain.
Parietal lobe, somatosensory area behind the frontal lobe sensations are processed.
Temporal lobe, auditory/language area. Behind the frontal lobe and below the parietal
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What is the cerebellum?
Receives information from the spinal cord and the brain, coordinated movement and balance; attention and language too.
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What are the 4 parts of functions in the brain localised? (excluding language)
Motor area, damage to left hemisphere affects the right side of the body.
Somatosensory, sensitive body part's take more space, damage lead to less pain.
Visual area, damage to left hemisphere affect right eye .
Auditory area, damage can lead to deafness.
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What is the Language area?
Language area, usually in the left hemisphere, broca's area damage leads to difficulty remembering and forming words. Wernicke's area: damage leads to difficulty understanding and producing meaningful speech.
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What was the aim of Penfield's study?
To investigate the function of the temporal lobe using the Montreal procedure.
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What was the method of Penfield's study?
Operated on patients with severe epilepsy, could stimulate areas of the brain in the conscious patient who reported their experiences,
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What where the results of Penfield's study?
Temporal lobe stimulation: experiences and feelings associated with those experience's including Deja vu.
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What were the conclusion of Penfield's study?
Area of brain called interpretive cortex stores of the personal meaning of previous events.
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What were the 3 Evaluations of Penfield's study?
S: Precise method - can be repeated.
W: Unusual sample - can't really be used as a representative example.
W: Mixed results in later research. the cortex may not always respond.
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What is a CT scanner?
Doughnut machine that rotates takes lot of x-rays of brain which are combined to make a detailed picture.
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What is the Adv and Div of a CT scanner?
Adv: Quality is higher than traditional X-ray
Div: High levels of radiation and produces still images
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What is a PET scan?
A patient is injected with radioactive glucose, brain activity is shown on the computer screen.
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What is the Adv and Div of a PET scanner?
Adv: Shows brain in action and localisation of function
Div: Expensive and may be unethical because of radiation.
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What is a fMRI scan?
Measures changes in blood oxygen levels. Displayed as 3-D Computer image.
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What is the Adv and Div of a fMRI scan?
Adv: Superior as produces clear images without use of radiation.
Div: Expensive and have to stay very still
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What is Faulty thinking?
It is when a person where they pay attention to the negative aspects of the a situation and ignore the positives.
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What are negative Schema's
People use schemas to interpret the world so, if you have a negative schema you would interpret everything as being bad.
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What is an Attribution?
It is the process of explaining causes of behaviour such as a friend buying a gift you think of them being kind to explain their actions. but also to search a cause for a fault and may put the blame on themselves.
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What is the influence of nurture on depression?
If a person has an unpleasant experience, they want to escape it. But if they can't they give up trying this is called learned helplessness.
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What is Aversion Therapy?
It is to associate their addiction with something unpleasant so they will avoid the addictive substance.
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How is aversion therapy is used for alcoholism?
The alcoholic is given a drug causes them to feel very nauseous and eventually vomit, but before they vomit they take a whisky because of the taste and smell. slowly overtime, the stimulus is associated with drinking and now the person whenever he feels l
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How is aversion therapy used for treating gambling?
A gambler thinks of phrases relating to their gambling behaviour and a normal behaviour. Every time they read a card with a gambling related phrase they receive a mild shock but painful. This causes the phrases to become associated with pain so now the ph
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How is aversion therapy used for smoking?
Rapid smoking, a person sits in a closed room and smokes intensely creating feelings of disgust and nausea. Causing the person to feel disgusted when seeing a cigarette.
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What are the 3 Evaluations of Aversion Therapy?
W: Addicts may abandon the therapy
W: Short term rather than long term
S: Can be combined with CBT.
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What is self management programmes?
When a person paves their own way to get rid of the addiction with no professional guiding them.
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What is are the first 6 steps of the 12 step programme?
1. Admit powerlessness over the addiction.
2. Find hope, believe in something higher.
3. Surrender control over to the higher.
4. Take a personal inventory.
5. Share inventory with the higher power, oneself and another person admitting wrongs done.
6. Bec
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What are the last 6 steps of the 12 step programme?
7. Ask the higher power to remove those short comings.
8. Make list of people who have been harmed.
9. Make amends if possible
10. Continue personal inventory and recognise wrongs immediately.
11. Use prayer and meditation to continue connection with the
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What are self help groups?
They are composed of people who share the same problems and offer help and support to each other such as the 12 step model.
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What are the 3 evaluations of the 12 step programme?
W: lack of clear evidence, such as the lack of research indicating that the 12 step programme is effective.
W: Individual differences, may be effective for certain people
S: One strength is that he 12 step programme focuses on person.
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Card 2


What was the method used in Asch's study?


123 American male students, (Naïve participants). Each naïve participant was put into a group of six to eight confederates who knew the real aim of the study and picked the obvious wrong answer.

In total 18 trials. 12 critical trials chose the wrong ans

Card 3


What was the results of Asch's study?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the conclusions of Asch's study?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


2 Evaluations of Asch's study.


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