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Interrupting Eye Contact (functions of eye contact)
Researcher: Argyle (1968)

AIM: To see how interrupting eye contact affects conversation

METHOD: Pairs of participants were observed having conversations. In half of the conversations, one of the participants wore dark glasses so
that the other could not receive eye contact.


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METHOD: Pictures of people's faces showing different emotions were cut down the middle and new faces made by combining mirror images of
each half face. These new faces were shown to participants who were asked which picture they preferred.

RESULTS: The majority of participants preferred the face made from the…

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EVALUATION: In the experiment, participants only had tone of voice and the content of the message to base their interpretation on. In real life we
usually have several other sources of information such as the facial expression of the speaker so we may not focus on tone of voice to…

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Cultural Norms and Personal Space
Researcher: Summer (1969)

AIM: To see if there are cultural differences in expectations of personal space

METHOD: Groups of white English people and groups of Arabs were observed in conversation.

RESULTS: The conversational distance for the English people was between 1 and 1.5m. The Arab…

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Non-Verbal Communication Studies


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