- Cartilage - Forms cushions between the bones to stop them rubbing
- Ligaments - Strong fibrous tissue that holds bones together
- Tendons - Attach muscles to bones
Different Types Of Joints:
- Fibrous - Immovable joints, hold bones together
- Cartilagnious - Slightly moveable, each of the bones rests on a cushion of cartilage
- Synovial - Freely moveable, contain synovial fluid inside a pocket called the synnovial membrane
Joints Carried On..
5 Types of Synovial Joints
- Ball & Socket - Can move in all directions and rotate aswel, allows abduction, adduction, flexion, extention & Rotation, e.g hip or shoulder
- Hinge - The joint can go forwards and backwards but not side to side, allows flexion and extention. E.g Knee or Elbow
- Pivot - Between the atlas and axis bones in your neck, ONLY allows rotation.
- Condyloid - Can move forwards and backwards and side to side but can not rotate, allows felxion, extension, abduction, adduction. E.g the wrist
- Gliding - Bones move a little bit in all directions by sliding over eachother, e.g between the tarsals or carpals.
Muscles are attached to 2 different bones by tendons, only one of these bones will move when the muscles contracts!
ORIGIN - The place where the muscle is attached to the stationary bone
INSERTION - Place where the muscle is attached to the moving bone
Antagonistic muscles work in pairs!
- The muscle that is moving is the prime mover, or agonist
- The muscle thats relaxing is the antagonist.
Muscle Fatigue - when your muscles are used a lot without enough oxygen they get tired
Muscle Atrophy - If you dont use your muscles they get smaller, this is atrophy
Cramp - A sudden contraction of a muscle that wont relax
The air you breath ends up in the alveoli!
TRACHEA --> BRONCHI --> BRONCHIOLES --> ALVEOLI
Breathing in (Inspiration) :
1. The intercostals and the diaphram contract to make the chest cavity larger.
2. Air is pushed into the lungs by the air pressure outside
Breathing out (Expiration) :
1. The intercostals and diaphram relax to make the chest cavity smaller
2. The lungs are squeezed and air is forced out.
Respiratory System Continued...
Tidal Volume - The amount you breathe in, in one breath
Vital Capacity - The most air you could possibly breathe in or out in one breathe
Oxygen Debt - the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above what would have been consumed during the same period at rest.
1) Carbon dioxide moves from your blood into the alveoli
2) Oxygen moves accross to the red blood cells. The haemoglobin combines with the oxygen to make oxyhaemoglobin
3) Red blood cells carry the oxygen around the body and deliver it where it it neeeded .
Cardiovascualr system consists of: Heart, Blood & Blood Vessels!!!
Our circulatory system has 2 parts, our pulmonary circulation and our systemic circulation. This is called a double circulatory system because blood is pumped simultaneously to different destinations.
Our systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from our heart to the rest of our body.
Our pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood from our heart to our lungs.
Cardiac output: amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
Stroke Volume: The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction
Methods Of training
Continuous Training - Consists of using working for sustained periods of time, using all the major muscle groups of the body
Cross Training - Involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness for your sport.
Interval Training - Using alternate periods of very hard exercise and rest. The aim of interval training is to improve anaerobic & aerobic fitness
Fartlek Training - training at different speeds and intensities over different terrain.
Circuit - Performing a series of exercises in a special order at different stations for set periods of work and rest.
Weight Training - Improves muscle stregnth and tone, resistance training.
Plyometric Training - Involves a series of explosive movements including bounds, hops, jumps, pressups with claps and throwing & catching a medicine ball.
Health Related Fitness:
- Muscular strength
- Muscualre endurance
- Cardiovascualr fitness
- Body Composition
Skill Related Fitness
- Agility- the ability to change the position of the body quickly
- Balance - the ability to reatin equilibrium, whether stationary or moving
- Co-ordination - the ability to use 2 or more body parts together
- Power - the ability to execute strength performances quickly
- Reaction time - time between the stimulus and the onset movement
- Speed - the rate at which an individual can cover a distance in a period of time