pe revision

  • Created by: phoebe
  • Created on: 08-05-13 15:48

1.1.1 healthy,active lifestyle

social benefits:

  •  develops friendships and social mixing
  • co operation
  • competition
  • physical challenge
  • aesthetic appreciation

Mental benefits:

  • helps relieves stress/tension
  • helps relieves stress related illness

physical benefits:

  • helps individual to feel and look good
  • enhances body shape
  • contributes to good heakth and enjoyment of life
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1.1.2 influences on lifestyle

Cultural - race,gender,disability

Health - injury, illness

Resources - access, availability, location,time

Image - media,fashion

Socio economic - cost

People - role models, family, peers

Roles in sport

performer, leader,coach,volunteer, official

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participation pyramid

Elite - olympics, international, professional sport

Performace - regional level, regular competition

Participation - regualry attend a club, leisure centres, after school sport

Foundation - school pe lessons, learning basic skills and techniques


sport england: start - get people interested in sport

                        sustain - keep people involved

                        excel - provide support for gifted and talented performers

youth sport trust: runs several initiatives within sport to improve participation and performance

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1.1.3 exercise & fitness

health - state of complete mental, physical and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

fitness - the ability to meet the demands of the environment

exercise - form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness

5 health related components:

cardiovascular fitness - your muscles can get enough oxygen to work properly

muscular strength - you're strong enough to lift,push,pull etc

muscular endurance - your muscles dont get tired too quickly

flexibility - movement at a joint to its fullest range

body composition - the ration of bone,muscle and fat in the body

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6 skill related fitness:

Agility - ability to change direction quickly and still be in control

Balance - ability to keep the body stable whether static or dynamic or in a different shape by keeping centre of gravity over the base

Co ordination - ability to use two or more parts of the body at the same time

Power - ability to apply a combination of speed and strength in an action (power = strength x speed)

Reaction time - the time it takes to respond to a stimulus

Speed - fastest rate at which a person can complete a task or cover a distance

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1.1.3 fitness testing

5 health related fitness tests:

cardiovascular = coopers 12 minute run, treadmill test, harvard step test

m strength = hand grip test

flexibility = sit and reach test

Skill related fitness tests:

agility = illinois agility run test

balance = the standing stork test

co ordinantion = 3 ball juggle

power = standing broad jump, sargent jump

reactions = the ruler drop test

speed= 30 metre sprint test

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1.1.4 physical activity

PAR-Q - Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (yes or no questions to see if its safe for you to increase your physical activity)                                                                                            F.I.T.T principles:





four principles of training:

Rest and recovery

Indiviudal needs

Progressive overload


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1.1.4 smart targets


Specific - exactly what you need to achieve

Measurable - goals need to be measurable so you know when you've achieved them

Achievable - targets are set at the right level of difficulty

Realistic - set targets you can realistically reach

Time bound - a deadline for reaching your goal

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1.1.4 methods of training

aerobic - with oxygen

  • lower intensity
  • endurance activities - marathon

anaerobic - without oxygen

  • higher intensity
  • short distance activities - sprinting

types of contraction -

isotonic - muscle changes length and so something moves

isometric - muscle stays the same length and so nothing moves

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1.1.4 training methods

circuit - loads of different exercises , between 8 - 15 stations

weight - improves m strength and tone

interval - fixed patterns of exercise, high intensity and low intensity ( hard exercise and rest periods)

continuous - no resting (aerobically)

fartlek - changes of speed, distances and times of exercise in same session without stopping

cross - improves overall performance, combination of different training methods

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1.1.5 diet,health and hygiene

Macro nutrients:

  • carbohydrates - main source of energy for the body, simple ones eg sugar, complex ones eg starch
  • proteins - growth and repair of tissues, builds muscles and repairs tissue.
  • fats - provide energy for body but help keep the body warm and protect vital organs

Micro nutrients:

  • vitamins - help bones,teeth and skin to grow and helps your vision
  • minerals - healthy bones, teeth and to build other tissue. calcium helps growth of bones, iron helps making red blood cells and the way blood is carried by haemoglobin
  • fiber - keeps your digestive system working properly (insoluble = adds bulk to food so moves through digestive system) (soluble = helps reduce cholesterol, keeping heart healthy)
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1.2.1 personal health and well being

overweight - having more excess weight than usual.

over fat - having more body fat than you should

obese - being very over fat

anorexic - a prolonged eating disorder due to lack of apetite

underweight - weighing less than is normal, healthy or required

Ectomorph - slightly built, delicate body, narrow shoulders amd hips , lean amd fragile eg marathon runner

Mesomorph - muscular, large trunk, broad shoulders, narrow hips eg 100m sprinter

Endomorph - round shape, narrow shoulders and broad hips , carry weight around waist and on hips and upper thighs eg sumo wrestler

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1.2.1 drugs


Beta Blockers - Advantages: control heart rate, lower heart rate, steady shaking hands, reduce anxiety but low blood pressure,cramp, heart failure

Anabolic steroids - mimic testosterone, increase bone and muscle growth, more agressive but high blood pressure, heart disease, infertility, cancer, women grow facial and body hair.

Diurectics - unrinate more - causing weight loss (important if competing in certain weight division), cover up over drugs but cause cramp and dehydration

Stimulants - affects central nervous system( bits of brain and spine that control reactions), increase mental and physical alertness but high blood pressure, heart&liver problems and strokes. addictive!

Narcotic Analgesics - kill pain (so injuries and faitgue dont affect performance so much but addictive, less pain can make athlete train too hard, constipation, low blood pressure

Peptide hormones - EPO causes red blood cells to mutiply-increase aerobic capacity but cause strokes and abnormal growth

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1.3.2 affects of alochol and smoking

Affects of alochol:

  • affects co ordination, speech and judgement
  • slows your reactions
  • makes your muscles tire quickly
  • eventually damages your heart,liver,kidneys and brain

positive is that is calms nerves!

affects of smoking:

  • causes throat,nose and chest irritations
  • makes you short of breath
  • increases risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and bronchitis and other diseases
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1.2.4 muscle action

how muscles are classified:

skeletal (voluntary) - they attach to the skeleton and give a persons shape eg biceps

smooth (involuntary) - work automatically and are not controlled eg blood vessels

cardiac (involuntary) - beats rythmatically eg heart muscle

what is muscle tone?

voluntary muscles in a state of very slight tension ready and waiting to be used

fast twitch and slow twitch :

fast twitch - used in explosive activities, contract quickly, produce powerful action, limited oxygen supply eg speed events , throwing & jumping

slow twitch - used in endurance activities, contract slowly, long lasting, good oxygen supply eg long distance running, swimming ,cycling

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1.2.4 muscle

how muscles work together:

antagonistic pairs - muscles working together to provide movement eg flexion of arm, biceps contract and triceps relax

  • agonist(prime mover) - contracting muscle causing movement
  • Antagonist - relaxing muscle that assists prime mover
  • origin - the end of the muscle that is attached to a fixed bone
  • insertion - point where a tendon that attaches muscle to bone where there is movement
  • flexibility - a joints ability to move through its full
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