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  • Created on: 06-06-12 18:39

Individual Difference

1) AGE- 

  • Flexibilty- tends to decrease with age and weight gain.
  • Strength- tends to decrease with age (after peak age), maximal strength isn't gained until fully grown.
  • Injury- the older you are the longer it takes to recover, and the more likely it occurs.
  • Skill level- tends to improve with age and experince, as well as improving as we grow because we become stronger.
  • Oxygen Capacity- tends to decrease with age, and the heart becomes less effcient. Arteries lose their elasticity, increasing blood pressure and reducing blood flow.

PEAK AGE: individuals reach a peak condition which is closely related to their age. e.g. gymnasts peak at teens, and you don't see 40+ footballers.

AGE DIVISION: events are always organised around age, because especially in school people's skill have developed at different ages. Flexibility comes in older people, e.g. they are grouped like 40+...etc

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  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Temporary
  • Permanent

All sports can be adapted to cater for general or specific disabilities. Disability classifications exit for all activities relating to the particular demands of that sport. E.g. Paralympic's are held every 4 years. (2008 - 20 events held).

Legally all facilities must cater for the disabled in the following ways:

  • ACCESS- doors and doorways must be wide enough.
  • PARKING- disabled parking bay marked and available.
  • PROVISION- disabled toilets, lifts must allow access to all floors, specific activities..etc
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Physical differences:

  • Body shape, size and physique generally differ.
  • Women generally have a lower oxygen- carrying capacity.
  • Muscle strength + power can vary.
  • Women have less muscle mas than men so they tend to be far more flexible.
  • Rates of maturity differ.
  • Males to be less effected by chemical substance changes within their body.


UNTIL 1960- women ran up to 800m in the Olympics. Many other sports are seen as traditionally male, e.g. football. Some women may also find that their religion restricts them.

Historically there have been fewer opportunities for women, it is comparatively recent that women have been granted equal opportunities to become officials, managers and so on. 

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  • hort legs in relation to their trunks, tendency to gain fat, pear shaped, wide hips and shoulders

ADV: Rugby Players. DISADV:  difficult to do weight bearing aerobic exercises because they don't have much muscle more fat.


  • Muscular arms and legs, minimum amount of fat, wedge shaped, broad shoulders, narrow hips.

ADV: excel in most sports- strength, agility + speed sports like swimming.


  • Predominantly long, slender and thin, very little muscle and body fat, narrow shoulders and hips.

ADV: can succeed in endurance events. DISADV: not suited to power and strength sports

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  • Pollution and Weather: pollution affect breathing and is dangerous to health. EXAMPLE: Frozen tracks being unable to hold winter Olympics. Prior to Beijing Olympics, the president announced pollution could affect endurance events - Haile Gebrselassie.
  • Humidity: effects the rate of sweat evaporating from the skins surface. Reduces the speed of evaporation + can cause excess sweating. Can affect your equipment- causing tennis strings to degrade.
  • Altitude: opportunities for activities like climbing, sailing...etc. Endurance training can be enhanced by training at high altitudes and then competing at lower height levels because of the extra white blood cells.
  • Terrain: physical features of a stretch of land. Can affect sports, e.g. it is harder to run on mountainous terrain rather than flat terrain.
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Risk= the possibility of suffering injury, loss or danger.

Challenge= the test of your ability or your resources ability in a demanding situation.

People take part in these type of activities because: they want to prove something to themselves/others, adrenaline needs, expand capability...etc.

Potential dangers must be considered before they are undertaken.

Risk assessment should include- preparation, qualified officials, rule, equipment.

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Competitive- involves some form of contest, rivalry or game. Highly committed training. Competitive matches. Professional competitors will concentrate on their activity full time.

High level= health benefits gained and maintained if participation is regular. Social aspects. Satisfaction of successful competitions.

Recreational- Any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as hobbies. Not as demanding, no training, done at a convenient time.

Low level= infrequent activity has little or no positive effects. Social aspects.

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Participation- high level performers, train as often as possible. Daily training, consider PERIODISATION. Different parts of training programme, on/off peak.

Time- proffessionals vs amateurs.                                                                      Proffesionals- totally free                                                                                   Amateurs- other commitments

Facilities- i.e amateur swimmers who train at their local pool can only do so much when it is free.

Funds- more money=more time, better trainining facilities, better equipment, specialist trainer/ coach. (sponsoship is often needed).

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Demands of Performance

Fatigue- feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on by extreme tiredness.

  • Local muscular fatigue- body might not be able to carry on.
  • Concentration levels decrease
  • Skill level decrease

Stress- the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.

  • Some people become more aggressive, others may find levels of arousal are increased.
  • Excitement can = tension, resulting in muscle tightness.
  • Anxiety can cause you to apprehension- both before and during the performance mistakes can occur.
  • Nervousness can add to tension levels= physical effects of sickness
  • Motivation will decrease.
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internally caused injuries= performer solely responsible.

  • overuse injuries- stress fractures, muscle and tendon damage.
  • sudden injuries- due to physical activities, hamstring pulled

externally caused injuries= factors other than the performer

  • foul play or incorrect actions
  • impact injuries
  • equipment/clothing
  • accidents


  • risk assessment should be carried out
  • warm ups
  • all rules should be clear, followed and enforced.
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Head Injuries: 

  • make sure casualty is able to breath, put in recovery position, ensuring nose and mouth are clear.

Concussion: DUE TO AN IMPACT.

  • loss of consciousness
  • weak/irregular pulse and/or slow/shallow breathing
  • dilated pupils


  • snapping sound + pain
  • swelling, abnormal shape (might see the bone)


  • remove all wet clothing, cover with warm/dry clothing or blankets.
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SPRAIN= injury at a JOIN partially/ completely tearing. OVERSTRETCHING

STRAIN= injury to a MUSCLE OR TENDON where the muscle fibres tear. " "

RICE= treatment for a soft tissue injury.

   Rest Ice Compression Elevation

CUTS=  CDD. - Clean, Dry, Dress

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


allow air to enter- air passages (nasal cavity and mouth)

breathing organ- lungs

muscle to allow breathing- diaphragm

allow air to enter- trachea

follows on from trachea- bronchi

follows on from bronchi- bronchioles

allows air to enter/exit the blood stream- alveoli

found between the ribs- intercostal muscles

helps you breathe in and out- ribs

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( diaphragm contracts and moves down drawing air into the lungs, through the air passages. Ribs move up and out to make more room.

Expiration- diaphragm relaxes, moving upwards forcing some air out of the lungs through the air passages out of the body, as this creates less room in the chest cavity. The intercostal muscles relax allowing the ribs to move down and inward.

Rate of breathing increases during exercise to increase the amount of oxygen into your bloodstream, so you can produce more energy.

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Composition of Air:

Gas/Vapour                   Inspired Amount                  Expired Amount

Nitrogen                                    78%                                          78%

Oxygen                                      21%                                         17%

Carbon Dioxide                         0.03%                                        4%    

Other Gases                            very little                                very little

Water Vapour                             varies                                 saturated

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LungCapacity.jpg (

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Tidal Volume= the amount of air into and out of the lungs in one normal breath. (average tidal volume=0.5l of air) increases during exercise.

Vital Capacity= the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximal inspiration. (average male volume= 5l expired, average female volume=4l)


An increase in tidal volume would help during exercise because as more oxygen is taken in with each breath,  there is more energy produced.

Gaseous Exchange


  • oxygen out of lung into the blood
  • carbon dioxide out of the blood and into the lungs
  • the walls of both of these are think and moist.
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oxygen + glucose = energy + co2 + h20.

  • only possible if oxygen is available
  • can supply energy for long periods of time if the oxygen supply is constant (e.g. marathon runners)

Once in the blood, it is carried in the red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin. Then it's transported to the working muscles that need to create energy.


glucose = energy + lactic acid

  • this process takes place in the muscles
  • energy for a short period of time- 30 seconds ish. (e.g. 100m sprint)
  • can't use anaerobic respiration for long periods of time because of the lactic acid build up and soon you would be forced to stop.
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Lactic acid is a poison that prevents muscles from working.

You must stretch to break down lactic acid  which will then break down the lactic acid because oxygen is being drawn to the working muscle which will break it down.

Oxygen debt= amount of oxygen required to break down the lactic acid that has been produced

Recovery process-

  • You continue to breathe heavily (breathing rate increased)
  • Stretch to continue the delivery of oxygen to the muscle.
  • Re-hydrate.
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  • the heart is cardiac muscle so with long term regular exercise it will grow and become stronger.
  • stroke volume will increase (volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction)
  • cardiac output will increase (amount of blood ejected from the heart in 1 minute. heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output)
  • resting heart rate will decrease


  • heart beat= contracts and relaxes
  • heart rate= number of times heart beats in 1 minute ( 72bpm) it will increase during exercise
  • pulse= a recording
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PULSE- a recording of your heart beat.

  • radial pulse- base of thumb/inside of writ
  • temporal pulse- just over the temple at the side of the forehead
  • carotid pulse- either side of neck
  • femoral pulse- in the groin



  • thick, elastic wall, carry oxygenated blood, high pressure away from the heart, no valves!


  • thinner walls than the arteries, less elastic, carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart, valves prevent back flow


  • thin walls for gaseous exchange, microscopic vessels that line arteries to the veins.
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  • Red Blood Cells: contains hemoglobin which carries oxygen to working muscles
  • White Blood Cells: fight infections and diseases
  • Plasma: the fluid of the blood which carries nutrients
  • Platelets: cause blood to clot, creating scabs so wounds can heal


  • Transportation: carries the o2, h20 and nutrients throughout the body, transports waste products out of the body.
  • Protection: antibodies in the blood fight infection. platelets cause clotting for healing.
  • Temperature Control: dilation of the capillaries controls blood flow to the surface of the skin.

During exercise: arteries widen, heart rate increases, salt on the surface of skin, more o2 required, working muscles produce heat, red blood cells take the oxygen to the working muscles, sweating to cool and rid the body of waste products, stroke volume increases, face reddens when blood vessels dilate, blood speeds up to help control the temperature to stop heat exhaustion, heart rate increases.

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Characteristics and Benefits of Leisure and Receat

Leisure Provisions

  • Local- public, council state run (e.g. tonbridge pool)
  • Private- privately owned business not regulated in the same way as local.
  • Rural- generally have less provisions than urban, more outside provisions (e.g. walking, football pitches)  
  • Urban- more demand for provisions as higher population.

Increase in Leisure Time

  • free time due to unemployment or shortened working week or part time/shift work
  • technological advances

Targeted User Groups

  • mother and toddler
  • OAP's
  • disabled
  • unemployed
  • teenagers
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RECREATION = relaxing and enjoying yourself. increasingly meaning doing something active and healthy.

  • Physical recreation- participating for intrinsic reward.
  • Intrinsic reward- health benefits, for please or purposeful use of time
  • Extrinsic reward- gaining a medal, money, good feedback- pleasing someone else (not always positive).

Factors effecting what recreational activities individuals choose:

  • age
  • location
  • provision and cost

Outdoor recreation and challenge:

  • using natural environments, may involve risk.
  • water based activities, natural water environments.

To gain maximal benefits from the use of leisure time through an active recreational pursuit, it is best to be involved throughout life.

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  • activities that involve exertion of physical or mental energy.
  • LOW impact= walking, bowls
  • HIGH impact= sprinting


  • activities that do not include physical or mental exertion, e.g. washing, travelling


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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

HEALTH= the state of being in complete social, mental and physical wellbeing.

  • Physical- able to complete physically demanding tasks, lack of illness.
  • Mental- learn to cope with stress and difficult situations, control emotions.
  • Social- learn friendship or support. confidence.

Help maintain a healthy lifestyle:

  • good exercise
  • balanced diet
  • interact with others

Other Influences

  • drugs/alcohol/smoking
  • personal hygiene
  • sex education
  • nutrition
  • environment aspects/ psychological aspects
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FITNESS= the ability to meet the demands of the environment.


  • improve body shape
  • decrease body weight
  • relieving stress and tension
  • helps you sleep better
  • reduces chance of getting ill
  • meet new people


  • increased heart rate
  • increased body temperature
  • reddening of the skin
  • feeling of tiredness in some muscles being used- possible fatigue.
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General Fitness

  • STAMINA ENDURANCE, CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS- exercise your body for a long time (cooper run)
  • MUSCULAR ENDURANCE- ability of muscles to maintain and repeat contractions without getting tired
  • STRENGTH- amount of force a muscle can exert (grip dynamometer)
  • FLEXIBILITY + SUPPLENESS- range of movement at a joint
  • BODY COMPOSITION- percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone.

Specific Fitness

  • POWER- strength x speed.
  • CO-ORDINATION- ability to move 2+ body parts together.
  • REACTION SPEED- time taken between a stimulus and set movement (ruler test).
  • TIMING- ability to coincide movements in relation to external factors.
  • SPEED- rate at which a person can perform a movement or cover a dist.
  • BALANCE- ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support.
  • AGILITY- ability to change position of the body quickly at speed.
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HAND GRIP DYNAMOMETER- hold it by your side, squeeze for maximum effort of 5 seconds. It measures fore-arm strength and your results are measured against a chart.

RULER DROP TEST- someone drops a meter ruler and you have to catch it as quickly as possible. It measures your reaction time.

STANDING BROAD JUMP- two feet take off, two feet landing.  Best of 3 and your av. dist is measured and compared to a chart. It measure the explosive power of your legs.

VERTICAL JUMP- stand next to wall, marks the highest point then can reach on the wall, performer jumpers vertically and marks highest point on the wall. Result is the height between two points.

12 MINUTES COOPER RUN- test is to run as far as you can in 12 minutes. Recorded to the nearest 100m. Result compared to your previous results + values table, that is age and gender specific. Measures cardiovascular endurance.

BLEEP TEST- series of 20m shuttle runs, run in time with an electronic bleep, speeds up every minute. Measures cardiovascular endurance.

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SIT AND REACH TEST- sit on floor with legs against a bench, see how far you can reach forward and hold for 2 seconds, best of 3. Measures flexibility in lower back and hamstrings.

STORK STAND- stand on floor, hands on hip, lit your toe onto other knee and raise your heal, time measured before you fall/drop heal.

ALTERNATE HAND THROW- stand 2m from wall, ball thrown in one hand to the other. Measures co-ordination.

ILLINIOIS AGILITY TEST- series of set cones to run around in a timed session. Change direction at speed. Measures agility.

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Joint= a place where two bones meet.


  • elbow. humerus, radius and ulna.
  • shoulder. scapula and humerus
  • hip. femur and hip.
  • knee. femur and tibia.
  • neck. atlas and axis.


  • ball+socket.  shoulder/hip. rotation.  bowl in cricket
  • pivot. neck. allows rotation. dancing/breathing in swimming.
  • hinge. elbow. back +forth. tennis/football.
  • saddle. thumb, allows thumb to move across palm. polo.
  • gliding. wrist/ankle. back,forth, twisting. rounders
  • condyloid. writ/base of index finger. flexing +extending. golf.  
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flexion- bending a limb at joint. e.g. dribbling in basketball

extension- straightening of limb at joint. e.g. discuss thrower

abduction- movement of a limb sideways away from central line of body. e.g. phase one of star jump/ javelin thrower

adduction- movement of limb sideways towards to the centre of the body. e.g. phase two of star jump.

rotation- circular movement around joint. e.g. swimmers arms in butterfly stroke.

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  • long. humerus, radius, ulna.. creates leverage, generate speed, force and                                                             power. E.g. bowling a ball
  • short. carpals, tarsals... specialists for fine movements, especially                                                                 hand. E.g. spinning a ball. important in                                                                       adjusting to keep balanced in                                                                          gymnastics.
  • flat.  cranium, clavicle... tough + can withstand impact. E.g. ribs, pelvis protects internal organs in rugby.
  • irregular.  vertebrae, patella. specialised shapes that are specific to their                                                               individual purpose.


  • produces blood takes place within the cavities of long bones. Red + White blood cells are produced in bone marrow,
  • protects e.g. ribs protects lungs
  • supports our body needs a framework
  • moves
  • shapes
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voluntary muscles (skeletal)

  • attached to skeleton
  • capable of contraction which causes skeletal movement
  • under our conscious control  E.G. triceps, biceps, calf muscle

involuntary muscles

  • in the body's internal organs
  • under unconscious control, usually quite slow. E.G. muscle surrounding stomach

cardiac muscle

  • involuntary, found in walls of the heart, making heart beat consistantly.

tendons= attach muscle to skeleton, are fibrous and inelastic.

origin= point where muscle tendon attaches to the fixed bone

insertion= point where the muscle tendon attaches to the moving bone


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  • concentric- when the muscle shortens.
  • eccentric- when the muscle lengthens and returns to its normal shape and length. e.g. a pilate in ballet.


  • muscle contracts but stays the same length, no movement of either limb or the joint. produces static strength. e.g. plank.

muscle tone is.... when a muscle is partially contracted to maintain a position, this state is called muscle tone.


  • explosive contractions. these fibres become fatigued quickly but with training you can delay this for a few seconds 


  • produce less powerful + slower contractions. become fatigued less quickly.
  • with correct training your body adapts to store more glycogen + gets used to using fat as an energy store.
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Specify- The effect each type of training has on your body in relation to your sport. You need to ensure you are training the right area of your body which your sport requires. E.g. endurance work for marathon runners.

Progression- Gradually increasing the level of exercise to ensure fitness continues to develop. Going too hard too early may cause an injury. E.g. an amateur runner preparing for a marathon wouldn't start on their first day with 24 miles or they would injure themselves.

Overload- When the body adapts to extra demands as it has to work harder. If the body is not overloaded a person's fitness won't improve. E.g. increasing frequency, intensity, time. Running harder, faster and for longer.

Reversibility- Process of losing fitness, after stopping regular exercise, if you stop you might have to start at a lower level. E.g. flexibility, if you are injured after you won't be as flexible.

Tedium- Boredom. If your training is boring you determination will decrease. E.g. marathon runners listen to music and run different routes.

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Frequency- increasing the number of sessions. E.g. in a circuit you would increase the number of times you completed the circuit.

Intensity- a way of making training harder without changing the other principles. E.g. in a circuit try and do just as much or more than your first time.

Time- how long you train for. E.g. run for 5 minutes instead of 3.

Type- if you do the same type of training boredom may set it, decreasing motivation. E.g. change the type of training around, strength, endurance, agility..etc

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Training Zone Graph


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( Components: 1)carbohydrates  2)proteins  3)fats  4)vitamins  5) mineral salts  6)fibre

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What food can they be found in?

Carbohydrates- pasta, cereal and potatoes

Fats- oils, dairy products, nuts and fish

Proteins- meat and fish, an excess intake can = kidney problems.

Vitamins- fresh fruit and vegetables

  •                  Vitamin A for vision
  •                  Vitamin B for energy production and stress reduction
  •                  Vitamin C to keep skin healthy
  •                  Vitamin D to help bones and teeth

Mineral Salts- fresh fruit, vegetables and fish

  •                         Calcium- to strengthen bones
  •                         Iodine- for energy production
  •                         Iron- prevents fatigue

Fibre- fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grain

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 Why are they important?

 Carbohydrates- they provide quick energy and 60% of diet.

  • Sugar= simple carbs, little.   Starch= complex carbs, lots.
  • Broken down into glucose and used at fuel, some stored as glycogen in liver +muscles.

 Fats- they provide slow energy, insulation and 25% of diet.

  • saturated fats (animal products) raised cholesterol + leads to <3 disease.
  • monosaturated fats (olive oils) lowers cholesterol, calorific.
  • polyunsaturated fats (oily fish) reduce risk of <3 disease.

 Proteins- growth and repairs muscles, 19% of diet.

  • Need to make blood, build cells and repair muscle +tissue damage.

 Vitamins- helps the body to work and function, also helps with concentration levels.

 Minerals- helps release food energy from food, and helps with decision making.

 Fibre- this cannot be digested so it helps to fill you up and keeps you regular.

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 What deficiencies occur if they are missing from your diet?

 lack of carbohydrates- underweight, hypoglycaemia, flatulence and diarrhoea

 lack of fats- anorexia

 lack of proteins- poor healing of wounds, weight loss, weakness, shrinking of the  muscles, osteoporosis

 lack of vitamins-  

  • vitamin a= blindness
  • vitamin c= scurvy
  • vitamin d= rickets
  • iron= anaemia
  • iodine= thyroid diseases
  • calcium= osteoporosis
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What is carbohydrate loading?

Endurance athletes preparing for competitions rely on their stores of glycogen as a source of energy during those competitions. Method of boosting the amount of glycogen in the body prior to a competition. It can improve sports performance for the athletes, delaying the effects of fatigue. 

DAY 1-3: Deplete the bodies system of carbohydrates. By day 3 the body is now convinced that there is a problem with the glycogen stores that need to be fixed by storing more glycogen than normal. 

DAY 4-6 Eat lots of carbohydrates, by day 6 the body will have replenished the glyogen stored with the normal amount + a little more.

Side Effects

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Diarrhoea
  • Chest Pain
  • Depression
  • If adequate amounts of carbohydrates aren’t consumed in the first three days, and then the functioning of several major systems will suffer, this is a very side effect and athletes must realise how extreme carbohydrate loading is.
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