GCSE PE Revision Cards

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  • Created by: jess
  • Created on: 21-11-10 19:48

Physical Benefits of a Healthy, Active Lifestyle.

  • Good fitness
  • Gives you energy
  • Reduces chances of stress-related illness
  • Offers physical challenges
  • Changes and enhances the body shape
  • Increases your life expectancy
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Mental Benefits of a Healthy, Active Lifestyle.

  • If you look good, you feel good (endorphins)
  • Encourages personal development
  • Increases your feeling of well-being
  • Gives you a hobby
  • Provides enjoyment and excitement
  • Allows you to appreciate sport
  • Reduces stress levels
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Social Benefits of a Healthy, Active Lifestyle.

  • Provides you with a chance to mix with new people
  • Encourages friendships
  • Increases confidence
  • Provides personal fulfilment
  • Encourages co-operation
  • Friendly competition
  • Helps to break down social and class barriers
  • Increases self-worth
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Barriers to Participation in Sport.

  • Health problems
  • Self consciousness about body (image)
  • Peer pressure
  • The image of a sport is not desirable 
  • Previous bad experience
  • Religious restrictions
  • Financial constraints
  • Lack of encouragement
  • Tradition/History
  • Lack of time
  • Poor school facilities
  • Lack of local facilities
  • Transport issues
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How People Influence Sport

Positive Influences:

  • Parents; if they have a keen influence on a particular sport
  • If your parents socialise at sports clubs you are more likely to take up that particular sport
  • Family pride & experience in sport
  • If you observe positive attitude towards sport and see it as a good thing
  • If you have a friend that already plays
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How People Influence Sport.

Negative Influences:

  • If you feel forced into doing it by parents, you may refuse to do it, or not enjoy it
  • If your family doesn't take part in any sport
  • If your parents don't take part or don't like it
  • If your friends don't like it
  • If your parents missed an opportunity when they were younger and want to live their dream through their child
  • If a child is forced to focus on only one sport
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Resource Influences

  • Access
  • Resources available
  • Location
  • Time
  • Socio-economic influences
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TOP Programme

Within the TOP Programme there are 3 different sections. These are;

  • TOP Link (14-16 year olds) - teach secondary school students to organise and manage sport or dance festivals in local primary schools
  • TOP Sportsability (all ages) - disabled and non-disabled young people through a variety of sporting challenges
  • TOP Resources - for nurseries, schools and colleges who are looking to purchase resources
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Step Into Sport

Its aim is to grow and develop young people as leaders and volunteers.

  • STEP ON (11-14 year olds) - in PE lessons students are introduced to sports leadership and volunteering. They learn how to plan and manage their own sports session.
  • STEP IN (14-16 year olds) - through volunteering they learn the skills to manage and support school-based sporting events.
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Definition of Health

Health:

A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of illness or disease.

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Definition of Fitness

Fitness:

The ability to meet the demands of the environment.

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Definition of Physical Activity

Physical Activity:

A form of planned or unplanned activity.

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Definition of Exercise

Exercise:

A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or physical fitness.

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Effects of Lack of Exercise

  • Become overweight
  • Heart problems
  • Stroke
  • Less capable of taking part
  • Don't want to go out
  • Slower metabolic rate
  • Aerobic capacity is reduced
  • Diabetes
  • Motivation levels drop
  • Loose self-confidence
  • Less flexibility
  • Out of breathe much easier
  • Loss of strength
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Health Related Fitness

M - muscular endurance

M - muscular strength

C - cardiovascular fitness

F - flexibility

B - body composition

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Skills Related Fitness

A - agility

B - balance

C - co-ordination

P - power

R - reaction time

S - speed

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Definitions of Skill Related Fitness

Agility - the ability to change direction quickly and maintain control of your whole body.

Balance - the ability to keep the body stable whether still, moving or in a different shape by keeping the centre of gravity over the base.

Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more parts of the body at the same time.

Power - the ability to apply a combination of strength and speed in an action.

Reaction Time - the time it takes to respond to a stimulus.

Speed - the fastest rate at which a person can complete a task or cover a distance.

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Health Related Fitness Tests

  • Coopers 12 minute run test (cardiovascular fitness)
  • Hand grip strength test (muscular strength)
  • Sit and reach flexibility test (flexibility) 
  • Harvard step test (muscular endurance)
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Skills Related Fitness Tests

  • Illinois agility run (agility)
  • Standing stork test (balance)
  • Three ball juggle/Two ball bounce test (co-ordination)
  • Sergeant jump test (power)
  • Standing broad jump (power)
  • Ruler drop test (reaction time)
  • 30 metre sprint (speed)
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The PESSCL Scheme

  • Sports colleges
  • Step into sport
  • Club links
  • Gifted and talented
  • Sporting playgrounds
  • Swimming
  • School sports partnerships
  • Professional development
  • QCA's PE and school sport 
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Principles of Training

R - rest and recovery

I - individual needs/differences

P - progressive overload

S - specificity

R - reversibility

F - frequency, intensity, time, type

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Definitions of Principles of Training

Rest and Recovery - The period of time allocated to recovery. The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition.

Individual Needs/Differences - Matching training to the requirements of an individual.

Progressive Overload - To gradually increase the amount of overload so that your fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury.

Specificity - Matching training to the requirements of an activity.

Reversibility - Any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training.

FITT - Frequency, intensity, time and type.

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PAR-Q

PAR-Q is a physical activity readiness questionnaire.

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Goal Setting

Why we set goals...

  • You know how to improve
  • You know what skill/quality you need to improve
  • You know what you need to work towards
  • Its a challenge for you
  • In the long run it will improve your game/sport on a whole
  • It motivates you if your goal is realistic (self-motivation)
  • Keeps you focused as you have something to work towards
  • Sense of satisfaction if you achieve it
  • Helps you to concentrate
  • You work harder
  • Self belief/confidence if you achieve it
  • Organised 
  • Maintaining a standard
  • Helps to regulate the intensity of your training
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Types of Goal Setting.

Short Term Goals - These may help to motivate someone, or act as signposts towards reaching a larger target.

Long Term Goals - These are often a mixture of several training programmes, and may be leading up towards a big competition/event.

There are 2 types of sporting goals:

  • Outcome goals (linked to performance in a future competition)
  • Performance goals (linked to performance in a previous competition)

 

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Goal Setting - SMART Targets

S - specific

M - measurable

A - achievable

R - realistic/relevant

T - time bound

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Warm Ups.

There are 3 parts to a warm up:

     1. Pulse raiser/Cardiovascular warm up

     2. Stretching

     3. Skills related activity

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Why We Warm Up.

We warm up because...

  • It gradually raises the body's temperature and heart rate
  • It prevents injury
  • It improves performance
  • It practices skills
  • It prepares you psychologically 
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Methods of Training.

I - interval training

W - weight training

C - continuous training

C - circuit training

F - fartlek training

C - cross training

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Components of a Healthy Diet

There are 7 components of a healthy diet. These are;

  • Fibre
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Fats
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Water
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Carbohydrate Loading

Carbohydrate loading is a method of boosting the glycogen levels in the body.

It works in stages:

  • Around 6 days before a competition the athlete eats minimal amounts of carbohydrates, and exercises to get rid of the bodies glycogen stores.
  • In the last 3 days before the competition the athlete eats mostly carbohydrates and reduces the amount of training they do.

This works because after the first 3 days the body thinks there is something wrong with its glycogen stores, and that it should store more glycogen than normal. Then when carbohydrates are eaten the body replenishes the glycogen stores and tops them up with a little bit extra.

Side effects:

- muscle stiffness                       - diarrhea                        - lethargy

 - chest pain                              - depression

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High Protein Diet

An athlete would eat a high protein diet if... they wanted to build muscle. 

  • Eating more protein is believed to promote muscle synthesis.
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Somatotypes.

Endomorph - Alot of body fat

Mesomorph - Muscular

Ectomorph - Tall & Slim

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Overweight & Obese

Overweight:

Someone is overweight if they are heavier than the average weight for their gender, height and build. This may not be that they are fat, it may be that they have more muscle. 

Being overweight (due to fat) is when you have a high level of fat compared to total body composition.

Obese:

Someone is obese when they are more than 20% over the standard weight for their height.

 

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The Damage of Being Obese.

Obesity is very damaging to a persons health. It can affect them physically, socially and mentally. 

Socially and Mentally:

  • Varicose veins
  • Skin diseases

Physically:

  • Varicose veins 
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Infertility
  • Skin diseases
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Definition of Weight Terms

Optimum Weight - Ideal weight for a person, giving them the best chance of success in an activity.

Overfat - A way of saying you have more body fat than you should have, more body fat than is recommended for your height and gender.

Overweight - Having weight excess of normal/not harmful unless accompanied by over fatness. 

Obese - A term used to describe people who are very fat (more than 20% over the standard weight for their height), this condition can lead to many problems.

Underweight - Weighing less than is normal, healthy and required.

Anorexic - A prolonged weight loss eating disorder due to obsessive control of food intake.

Fatigue - The body's inability to complete a task.

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Factors that Affect Optimum Weight.

  • Gender
  • Bone structure
  • Height
  • Muscle girth
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Why Athletes Take Drugs.

  • Faster
  • Stronger
  • More aggressive
  • Aim/shot steadier
  • Loose weight
  • Dilute presence of other illegal substances
  • Train for longer and harder
  • Speeding up reactions
  • Calming
  • Addiction
  • Peer pressure
  • More alert
  • Stop you from feeling tired
  • Improves body's ability to carry oxygen
  • Mask pain
  • Make the most out of short sporting life
  • Better results lead to better sponsors
  • Desire to meet the expectations of others
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Drug Definitions

Drugs - A drug is a chemical you take that affects the way your body works.

Doping - Taking drugs to improve sporting performance.

Blood doping - When blood is removed from an athletes body, its frozen, and they carry on training really hard. Just before competition they put the other blood back in, so the athlete has more red blood cells.

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Short Term Effects of Alcohol.

  • Relax
  • Feel good
  • Dizziness
  • Poor balance
  • Poor co-ordination
  • Impaired judgement
  • Slow reactions
  • Blurred vision
  • Impaired speech
  • Aggressive behaviour
  • Vomiting 

 

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Long Term Effects of Alcohol.

  • Skin problems
  • Liver and brain damage (scoliosis of the liver)
  • Damage to reproductive organs
  • Memory loss/confusion
  • Heart and blood disorders
  • Stomach problems
  • Frequent infections 
  • Weight gain
  • Suppresses appetite
  • Depression
  • Relationship problems
  • Problems with money and work
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