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  • Created by: katie
  • Created on: 09-12-12 09:21

1) Individual Difference

How do individuals differ?

  • age
  • gender
  • physical ability
  • physique
  • environment
  • risk and challenge
  • activity levels
  • training
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Individual Difference

1) AGE

  • Flexibility- tends to decrease with age, weight gain can also reduce this.
  • Strength- decrease with age, maximal strength not until fully grown, weight training not recommended for certain age groups
  • Injury- reconvery time increases with age, more chance of suffering from diseases or disorders the older you get
  • Skill Level- can improve with age and experience, as well as improving as we grow and get stronger
  • Oxygen Capacity- reduces wirg age and the heart becomes less efficient, arteries gradually lose their elasticity, increasing blood pressure and reducing blood flow.

PEAK AGE- individuals reach a peak condition which is closely related to their age. e.g. gymnasts peak at teens, and you don't see 40+ footballers.

AGE DIVISION- school sport is always organised into age groups, some flexibility may be allowed with some individuals playing for years above, this is due to the corrolation of peak fitness and age

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Individual Difference

2) Diability

  • Mental
  • Physical
  • Permanent
  • Tempory

All sports can be adapted to cater for general or specific disabilities. Disability classifications exisit for all activities relating to the particular demands of that sport. E.g. Paralympic's are held every 4 years. (2008 - 20 events held). HOW RULES DIFFER IN BASKETBALL: size of court, height of basket, have to bounce of thrown ball every 2 pushes of wheels.

Legally all facilities must cater for the disabled in the following ways (APP):

  • ACCESS- doorways are wide enough
  • PARKING- disabled parking bays marked and available
  • PROVISION- lifts must allow to all floors, disabled toilets, specific activities.
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Individual Difference

3. Gender

Physical Differences:

  • Body shape, size and physique generall differ
  • Women generally have a lower oxygen-carrying capacity
  • Muscle strength and power can vary
  • Women tend to have less muscle than men so they tend to be far more flexible
  • Rates of maturity differs
  • Males tend to be less effected by chemical subtances changes within thier body


UNTIL 1960- women ran up to 800m in the Olympics. Many other sports are seen as traditionally male, e.g. football. Some women may also find that their religion restricts them.

Historically there have been fewer opportunities for women, it is comparatively recently that women have been granted equal opportunities to become officials, managers and so on.

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Individual Difference

4) Physique

  • Endomorph: Short legs in relation to their trunks, tendency to gain fat (especially arms+thighs), pear shaped, wide hips and shoulders

ADV: Rugby Players     DISADV: Difficult to carry out weight bearing aerobic exercises.

ASASHORYU (sumo wrestler) 

  • Mesomorph: broad, wide shoulders and narrow hips, wedge-shape body, muscular arms and legs, minimum amount of fat

ADV: Excel in strength, agility and speed sports. MICHEAL PHELPS (swimmer)

  • Ectomorph: narrow shoulders and hips, predominantly long, slender and thin, very little muscle and body fat

ADV: Endurance events (e.g. marathons) DISADV: power and strength sports

PAULA RADCLIFF (marathon runner)

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Individual Difference

5) Environment

  • POLLUTION AND WEATHER= pollution affects breathing and is dangerous to health. EXAMPLE:Frozen tracks = unable to hold winter Olympics. Prior to Bejiing Olympics- President  announced pollution could affect endurance events- Haile Gebrselassie decided not to participate.
  • HUMIDTY=effects the rate of swear, evaporates from skins suface. reduces the speed of evaporation and can cause excess sweating. can equipment- EXAMPLE: tennis strings degradte.
  • ALTITUDE= opportunitys for activites to occur e.g. climbing, skiing, mountaineering. endurance performance enhanced at high altitude training then competing at lower height levels - extra blood cells... more oxygen intake.. etc
  • TERRAIN= physical features of a stretch of land. effects sports, e.g. running on mountaneous terrain is harder and more challenging than flat terrain.
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Individual Difference

7) Activity Levels and Needs

Competitive= involces some form of contest, rivalry or game.

  • highly committed training
  • competitive matches
  • proffesional competitors will concentrate on thier activity full time

High Level- health benefits gained + maintained if participation is regular. social aspects. satisfaction of successful competitions.

Recreational= any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as games, sports or hobbies.

  • not as demanding, no special training or preparation
  • done at a convinient time
  • age may define how much leisure time a person has

Low Level- infrequent activity, has little or no positive physical effects. social aspects.

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Individual Difference

8) Training


  • high level performers- train as often as possible
  • daily training- consider periodisation- different parts of a training programme- off/on peak
  • to ensure they are able to peak at the right times


  • proffesional- totally free
  • amateurs- other commitments. facilities- amateur swimmers who train at their local pool can only do so when it is free.


  • more money= more time, better training facilities, better equipment, specialist trainer/coach.
  • sponsorship is ften needed/wanted.
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Physical and Mental Demands of Performance

Fatigue- feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on by extreme exertion.


  • local muscular fatigue- body may not be able to carry on with the task
  • concentration levels decrease- more likely to make mistakes
  • skill level decreases- less speed, control or strength

Without a rest, your body will be forced to stop!

Stress- the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.


  • some people become more aggressive, others may find levels of arousal increase
  • excitement can lead to tension- resulting in tightnes in muscles and physical effects
  • nervousness can add to tension levels- performer may become adgitated- extreme physical effects of sickness and shaking
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Physical and Mental Demands of Performance


Internally caused injuries:

  • performer soley responsible
  • overuse injuries- stress fractures and mucle/tendon damage (e.g. tennis elbow)
  • sudden injuries- due to physical activities- hamstring pulled

Externally caused injuries:

  • factors other than the performer
  • foul play or incorrect actions/impact injuries/accidents
  • equipment/clothing


  • risk assessment should be carried out and the findings followed
  • warm ups should always be carried out before starting
  • all rules/codes of conduct hould be clear, followed and enforced.
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Physical and Mental Demands of Performance

First Aid:

Head Injuries:

make sure casualty is able to breath- ensuring noise and mouth are clear, put in reconvery position

Concussion: (due to an impact): loss of conciousness/ relaxed limbs/ dilated pupils, bleeding from the ears


snapping sound/ considerable swelling to abnormal shape/ might be able to see the bone


rapid cooling of the core temperature of the body.

treatment= remove all wet clothing and cover with warm, dry clothing or blankets

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Physical and Mental Demands of Performance


  • ligament at a joint partially/ completely tears due to sudden stretching


  • injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibres tear as a result of overstretching.

Sprain/Strain= BOTH TEAR, one at joint + one not. sprain = JOINT. sTrain= Tendon

RICE-  treatment for a soft tissue injury

  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevate

Cuts (CDD):  C= clean,   D= dry,    D=dress

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


  • AIR PASSAGES- allow air to enter
  • LUNGS- breathing air
  • DIAPHRAGM- muscle to allow vreathing to take place
  • PHARYNX- throat
  • LARYNX- voice box
  • TRACHEA (windpipe) - allows air to enter
  • BRONCHI- follows on from trachea
  • BRONCHIOLES- follows on from bronchi
  • ALVEOLI- allows air to enter/exit bloodstream (o2 in, co2 out)
  • INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES- found between the ribs that help you breathe in and out
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Inspiration- diaphragm contracts and moves down drawing air int the lungs. Air is drawn in through the air passages, ribs move up and out to make more room.

Expiration- diagphragm relaxes, moving upwards forcing some air out of the lungs as this creates les room in the chest cavity. Air is forced out of the lungs and through the air passages to exit the body.

Effects of Exercise

Why does the rate of breathing increase during exercise? to increase the amount of oxygen into your bloodstream allowing you to produce more energy.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Composition of Air:

Gas/Vapour     Inspired Amount     Expired Amount

Nitrogen                       78%                      78%

Oxygen                        21%                      17%

Carbon Dioxide             0.03%                     4%

Other gases               very little                  very little

Water Vapour               vaires                       saturated

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

breath volume chart (

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Tidal Volume: the amount of air into and out of the lungs in one normal breath at rest or during exercise. Average Tidal Volume- 0.5 litres of air, but it increases during exercise

Vital Capactiy: the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximal inspiration/ breath in.

Average male volume= 5l expired

Average female volume= 4l expired

Effects of Exercise

Why would an increase in tidal volume help during exercise?

As more oxygen is taken in, in each breath which allows an increase in energy production.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Gaseous Exchange

Alveoli- oxygen out of lungs into the blood, carbon dioxide out of the blood and into the lungs, the walls of both of these are thin and moist surface area.


oxygen + glucose = energy + co2 + h20

Used for:

  • only possible if oxygen is available
  • can supply energy for long periods of time as long as the oxygen is constantly delivered e.g. marathon runners
  • once in the blod it is carried in the red blood cells, which contain heamoglobin, then transported to the muscles that need to create energy.
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


glucose = energy + lactic acide

Used for:

  • can supply energy for short periods of time, can't be obtained. e.g. 100m sprint
  • cant use it for a long time because of the lactic acid build up + you would be forced to stop.

Lactic Acid and Oxygen Debt:

= it is a poison, prevents muscles to continue working. You need to stretch to break down the lactic acid because o2 is being drawn to the working muscle which will break it down. The oxygen debt is how much oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid produced.

Recovery Process:

breathing rate increased (breath heavily), stretch and rehydration.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Effects of exercise

The heart is a cardiac muscle, with long term regular exercise it will grow and become stronger.

  • stroke volume increase (volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction)
  • cardiac output increase (amount of blood ejected from the heart in sixy seconds. equation= heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output)
  • resting heart rate will decrease


  • heart beat= contracts and relaxes
  • heart rate= number of times heart beats in 1 minute ( 72bpm) it will increase during exercise
  • pulse= a recording
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


  • radial pulse= base of thumb/ inside of wrist
  • temporal pulse= just over the temple, at the side of the forehead
  • carotid pulse= either side of neck
  • femoral pulse= in the groin


Arteries: thick elastic wall, carrying oxygenated blood, high blood pressure away from the heart. NO VALVES

Veins: thinner walls than arteries, less elastic, carry deoxyginated blood back into the heart. VALVES- prevents backflow

Capillaries: thins walls for gaseous exchange, microscopic vessells that link arteries -> veins.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


  • red blood cells= to carry ocygen to working muscles, contain heamoglbin- carries o2.
  • white blood cells= fights diseases + infections
  • plasma= the fluid of the blood which carries nutrients
  • platelets= cause blood to clot, creating scabs so cuts and wounds can heal


  • transportation: blood carries the o2, h2o + nutrients throughout the body and transports waste products for removals
  • protection: antibodies in the blood fight infections, platelets in blood cause blood clots to seal cuts + wounds
  • temperature control: dilation of the capillaries controls blood flow to surface of the skin


arteries widen,heart rate increases, salt on surface skin, more o2 needed, working muscles make heat, red blood cells take o2 to working muscles, sweating to cool and rid body of waste substances, stroke vol increases, capillaries dilated, heart rate increase.

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Characteristics and Benefits of Leisure and Recrea

Leisure Provisions

Local: public- council state run (e.g. tonbridge swimming pool)

Private: private enterprise- owned business not regulated in the some way as a state owned organiation (e.g. esporta, la fitness gym)

Rural: rural areas generally have less provisions than urban areas, more outside provisions. (e.g. walking, football)

Urban: urban areas more mean more demand for areas due to higher population

Increase in leisure time: unemployment, shortened working week, part time/ sift work, technological advances

Leisure industry target there provision pecifically at 'user groups':

1)Mother + toddler  2)OAPs  3)Disabled  4)Unemployed  5)Teenagers

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Characteristics + Benefits of Leisure + Recreation

Recreation: can mean jut relaxing and enjoying yourself, increasingly meaning doing something active and healthy.

physical recreation: participating for intrinsic reward

  • intrinsic reward- health benefits, for pleasure or purposeful use of time
  • extrinsic reward- gaining a medal, money, good feedback, pleasing someone else. not always positive.

Factors that effect what recreational activities individuals choose:

  • age, location, provision and cost - might not be able to afford for horseriding lessons, so you play football in a local park.

Outdoor recreastion and challenge: using natural environments- may involve risk (climbing, caving, sailing, windsurfing)

Lifelong sports: to gain maximal benefit from the use of leisure time through an active recreational pursuit, it is best to be involved throughout life.

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27. Characteristics + Benefits of Leisure + Recrea

Leisure is.... time when you are able to choose what you want to do (e.g. doing a hobby, sleeping..etc)

Passive Leisure- activities that do not involve physical/mental exertion

Active Leisure- activities that involve physical/mental exertion.

  • Low impact- walking, bowls
  • High impact- sprinting

Both types of leisure benefit mentally.

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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Health= in a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease.

  • Physcial= able to complete phyically challenging tasks, physical improvements, lack of illness
  • Mental= learn to cope with stress+difficult situations, can control emotions
  • Social= able to interact with others, have friendship/support, confidence.

Help maintain a healthy lifestyle:

  • good exercise habits
  • balanced diet
  • interact with others

Other influences:

  • drugs, alcohol, personal hygiene, smoking, sex ed, nutrition, environmental aspects (where you live), psychological aspects (how you are mentally)
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Fitness= the ability to meet the demands of your environment.


  • improve body shape, decrease body weight
  • relieving stress and tension
  • helps you sleep better
  • reduces chance of getting ill
  • improve basic level of trength, stamina and flexibility
  • meet new people and socialise with friends


  • increased heart rate
  • increased body temperature
  • reddening of the skin
  • feeling of tiredness or heaviness in some of the muscles being used- possible fatigue.
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Fitness= the ability to meet the demands of your environment.


  • improve body shape, decrease body weight
  • relieving stress and tension
  • helps you sleep better
  • reduces chance of getting ill
  • improve basic level of trength, stamina and flexibility
  • meet new people and socialise with friends


  • increased heart rate
  • increased body temperature
  • reddening of the skin
  • feeling of tiredness or heaviness in some of the muscles being used- possible fatigue.
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle


  • Muscular Endurance- ability of muscles to maintain and repeat contractions without getting tired
  • Strength- amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
  • Flexibility and suppleness- range of movement at a joint
  • Body composition- percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone
  • Stamina, Endurance, Cardiovascular Fitness- exercise your body for a long time e.g. cooper run/ bleep test


  • Agility- ability to change position of the body quickly whilt mainting control
  • Coordination- ability to move 2 or more body parts together accurately
  • Reaction speed- time taken between a stimulus and a set test
  • Timing- ability to coincide movements in relation to external factors
  • Speed- rate at which a person can perform a movement or cover a distance
  • Balance- ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Hand Grip Dynameter- hold the dynameter by your side and squeeze it for a maximum effort of 5 secs. Measures fore-arm strength, and your results are measured against a chart.

Ruler Drop Test- have a meter ruler, someone drops it and you have to catch it as quick as possible. Measures reactin time

Standing Broad Jump- two feet take off, two feet landing, best of three and average distance is measured and compared to a chart. Measures explosive power of your legs.

Vertical Jump- performer stand next to a wall, marks highest mark they can reach on wall, feet flat on ground, jumps vertically and marks highest point on the wall best of three. Measures explosive power

12 Minute Cooper Run- on 400m track, each 100m is marked out, test is to run as far as possible in 12 minute, recorded to nearest 100m and result compared to a gender and age specific chart. Measures cardiovascualr endurance

Bleep Test- series of 20m shuttle runs in time with electronic bleep, speeds up every minute. Measures cardiovascular endurance.

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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Sit And Reach Test- sit on the floor with legs tretched out against a bench, knees flat on floor, hands are placed on top of each other forced downwards + you reach forward + hold for 2 secs, best of three. Measures flexibility in lower back + hamstrings.

Stork Stand- stand with feet on floor, hands on hip, lift your toe onto other knee and raise your head off the floor. Time is measured before you put your heel down/fall..etc  Measures balance.

Alternate Hand Throw- stand 2m from wall, ball thrown in one hand in an under arm action from one hand to the other. measures co-ordination

Illinois Agility Test- series of cones to go around in a time session, set course. change of direction at speed. measures agility.

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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Joint action. Explanation. Example in sport.

  • Flexion- bending a limb at a joint-dribbling a ball (elbow is flexed)
  • Extension- straightening a limb at a joint- discuss thrower
  • Abduction- movement of a limb sideways away from the central line of the body, 1st phase of a star jump (bringing arms up)
  • Adduction- movement of a limb sideways towards the central line of the body, 2d phase of a star jump (being arms down)
  • Rotation- circular movement around the joint, swimmers arms in making a circular action to complete the butterfly stroke.
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle


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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Type of bone. Examples. Why they are useful in sport.

  • LONG- humerus, radius, ulna- creates leverage, helping to generate power, speed + force. e.g. bowling a ball, hitting tennis ball.
  • SHORT- carpals, tarsals- specialists for fine movements, especially in hands, responsible for spinning a ball, can make small adjustments to help keep the body balance, e.g. important in gymnastics (beam/bar..etc)
  • FLAT- cranium, clavicle, scapula- tought+ can withstand tough impact. E.g. ribs, pelvis protect vital organs in rugby.
  • IRREGULAR- vertabrae, patella, ileum- specialised shapes that are specific to individual purport. e.g. vertabrae, patella, pelvis
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle


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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Muscular System

Voluntary muscle (skeletal)- e.g. triceps, biceps, calf muscle

  • attached to skeleton
  • capable of contraction which cause skeletal movement
  • under our concious control

Involuntary muscle- e.g. mucle surrounding your stomach

  • in bodys internal organs
  • it performs its function without any conscious control, usually quite slow.

Cardiac muscle

  • involuntary
  • found in walls of heart
  • makes heart beat constantly
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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

TENDONS- attach muscle to skeleton and are fibrous and inelastic

ORIGIN- point where muscle tendon attaches to the fixed or stationary bone

INSERTION- point where the mucle tendon attaches to the moving bone


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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Synergists- helping muscle but not main muscle

    Muscle - Movement when prime mover - Partner Muscle - Movement when prime mover

  • Bicep Raising lower arm/ flexion at the elbow Tricep Extension at the elbow
  • Quadriceps Straightens/extension at the knee hamstring Flexion at the knee
  • Abdominals Holds your body up, e.g. allow you to do a sit-up
  • Pectorals Let’s you raise your arm at shoulder
  • Gastrocnemius Allows you to point your toe and flex your feet


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Health, Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle


  • Concentric- when the muscle shortens
  • Eccentric- when the muscle lengthens and returns to it's normal shape and length- normally a breaking movement, e.g. a pliate in ballet


muscle contracts but stays the same length. no movement of either limb or the joint. produces a strength, e.g. plank

Muscle tone is... when some of the muscle tissue/ fibres stay contracted to maintain a position-. Good muscle tone in your back prevents bad posture. Improved by exercises.

FAST TWITCH FIBRES explosive contractions. these fibres become fatigued quickly but with training you can delay this for a few seconds

SLOW TWITCH FIBRES less powerful + slower contractions. fatigued less quickly. with training body adapts to store more glycogen + gets used to using fat as an energy store.

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  • Specify- the effect each training session has on your body in relation to your sport. Need to insure you are training the right area of fitnes and area of body which you need for your sport or discipline. E.g. marathon runner- endurance work
  • Progression- gradually building up the level of exercise or training to ensure fitness is developing. Getting too hard too early or going for a too long a period of time for your current fitness level may cause injury. E.g. basketball training for too long = injury.
  • Overload- when the body adapts to the extra demands placed on it- has to work harder. If body isn't overloaded a person's fitness won't improve. Increasing intensity, frequency and duration. E.g. running harder, faster and for longer.
  • Reversibility- process of losing fitness soon after stopping regular training or exercise. If have to stop training for period of time, may need to start back at a lower level. E.g. after injury less flexible.
  • Tedium- boredom. If training becomes boring- decrease motivation and determination resulting in apathy. E.g. marathon runners train whilt listening to music + different routes.
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Frequency- increasing the number of times an action or session is performed. E.g. in a circuit increase amount of times you woud complete it.

Intensity- a way of making your training harder withouth changing the other principles. E.g. circuit try and do just as much or more in a certain time. More start jumps than first time when doing circuit.

Time- how long you train for. E.g. run for 5 minutes instead of 3.

Type- if you do exactly the same in each training session boredom may set in and result in a decrease in motivation and determination. E.g. change type of training aorund- strength, agility, endurance.

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Effects of Exercise

  • face reddens when blood vessels dilate
  • stroke volume increases
  • sweating to rid the body of waste produces
  • red blood cells take the oxygen to the working muscles
  • working muscles produce heat
  • arteries widen to let more blood flow through
  • heart rate increases
  • salt on the surface of skin
  • blood speeds up to help control the temperature to stop heat exhausation
  • more oxygen is required by the working mucles
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Balanced Diet: failing to maintain a balanced diet could result in defeciencies.

  • Chris- carboydrates
  • Fitt- fats
  • Punches- protein
  • Water- water
  • Rats- roughage (fibre)
  • Very Meanly- vitamins + minerals

Malnutrition- physcial weakens= from insufficent food/ unbalanced diet.

Obesity- condition of being extremley overweight= result in health problems (heart attacks, strokes, liver problems). Puts strain on heart, muscles, bones + ligaments.

Anorexia- eating disorder related to fear of gaining weight and distorted body image. Excessive weight loss.

Body composition= better indicator of fitness than BMI.

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What foods can the six main components be found in?

  • carbohydrates- pasta, cereal and potatoes
  • fats- oils, dairy products, nuts and fish
  • proteins- meat and fish
  • vitamins- fresh fruit + veg= vitamin a for vision, vitamin b for energy + production, bitamin c for healthy skin, vitamin d for helping bone and teeth.
  • mineral salts- fresh fruit, vegetables and fish= calcium to strengthen bones, iodine for energy production, iron prevents fatigue (anemia)
  • fibre- fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grain
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Why are they important?

  • Carboydrates- provide quick energy and roughly 60% of diet. sugar= simple carbs, little. starch= complex carbs, lots. broken down into glucose and used as fuel, some stored as glycogen in liver + muscles.
  • Fats- provide slow energy, insulation + 25% of diet.
  • saturated fats (animal products) rasied cholesterol + leads to heart disease
  • monosaturated fats (olive oils) lowers cholesterol, calorific.
  • polyunsaturated fats (oily fish) reduce risk of heart disease.
  • Proteins- growth and repair muscle, 19% of diet. need to make blood, build cells and repair muscle + tissue damage.
  • Vitamins- helps the body to work and function, also helps with concentration levels.
  • Minerals- helps release food energy from food, and helps with decision making.
  • Fibre- this cannot be digested so it helps to fill you up and keeps you regular.
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What deficiencies occur if they are missing from your diet?

  • lack of carbohydrates- underweight, hypoglycaemia, flatulence and diarrhoea
  • lack of fats- anorexia
  • lack of proteins- bad healing of wounds, weight loss, weakness, shrinking of the muscles, osteoporosis
  • lack of vitamins-

vitamin a= blindness
vitamin c= scurvy
vitamin d= rickets
iron= anaemia
iodine= thyroid diseases
calcium= osteoporosis

  • Paula Radcliffe- high carb diet. (Marathon Runner)
  • Mariusz Pudzianowski- high protein. (Weight lifter/ strongman)
  • Nick Faldo- balanced. (Golfer)
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Carbohydrate Loading: Endurance athletes preparing for competitions rely on their stores of glycogen as a source of energy during those competitions. Method of boosting the amount of glycogen in the body prior to a competition. It can improve sports performance for the athletes, delaying the effects of fatigue.

  • DAY 1-3: Deplete the bodies system of carbohydrates. By day 3 the body is now convinced that there is a problem with the glycogen stores that need to be fixed by storing more glycogen than normal.
  • DAY 4-6: Eat lots of carbohydrates, by day 6 the body will have replenished the glyogen stored with the normal amount + a little more.

Side Effects:

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Diarrhoea
  • Chest Pain
  • Depression
  • If adequate amounts of carbohydrates aren’t consumed in the first three days, and then the functioning of several major systems will suffer.
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International and Other Factors

Types of media:

  • television- televised sports, regulations on them such as cant have listed events on exclusively 'pa by view' channels (e.g. wimbeldon/olymipics on sky1), tv programmes about sport- soccer am, match of the day, question of sport.
  • radio- broadcasting costs lower, radios cheap, portable + easy access. e.g. talksport
  • press- newspapers (sports sections), magazines (specialists mags for specific sport), books (sport books, textbooks)
  • internet- cd's, websites boradcasting tv + radio.

Positive influences of media:

  • demonstrating performance and participation= slow-mtion emphasise good points, individuals well inforemed, exemplar to follow, promotes health benefits, increase popularity.
  • increasing revenue- directly through paymnets for broadcasting rights, indirectly sponsers more likely in high level media coverage.
  • encouraging variety- different types, output- informative, educational, instructive, entertainment, caters for everyone
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International and Other Factors

Negative influences of media:

  • intrusion on event- lack of privacy, photographers, reporter in way of spectators.
  • media pressure- some rules changed for drama e.g. particularly done s - tie break tennis
  • edited coverage- directrs decide what boradcast- not all action seen
  • altered event timings- decisions made by officials undermined with slow- mo.
  • limited attendance- if even televised live, discourage people attending
  • biased based on popularity- activities with large media interest flourish and grow whereas those that dont decline in popularity (e.g. football in comparision to fencing)
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International and Other Factors

Sport and Equipment Rules


  • stipulations to which swimming costumes to wear, e.g. swimming shark skins banned. 
  • gymnasts + trampolining- no baggy clothing- must be tight leotard.
  • riding- back protections to keep you safe


  • trampolining shoes- aid performance for grip, safety measures for holes in trampoline bed
  • gymnast- no shoes for grip
  • football- boots studded certain length


  • cricket- over 18s have to wear full helmet to bowl
  • hockey- goalie has to wear helmet with face guard
  • netall- specific sized ball
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International and Other Factors

Technological Advances:


  • pole vault- the material of the vault changed from wood- carbon fibres, mat larger+safer
  • hockey- material changed to carbon fibres so it is lighter, more powerful shot
  • cycling- shape, material, no brakes to enhance performance, weight of bike= lighter.


  • swimming- clothing= no sharks skin suits (because make them too fast- too much advancements. timing), timing, technologies - electronic- rid of human error, touch pads
  • football- boots, rubber top of boots give me grip on free kicks (D.Beckham used)

Recording and Analysis:

  • hawkeye- redicts projection of the balls landing on courts (tennis)
  • goal line technologies- necessary + timing devices (touch pads- as athletes performance increases, recording needs to be more sophisticated, referee radio.
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International and Other Factors


  • Event- wimbeldon- (evian) olympics (macdonalds)
  • Individuals- Rafeal Nadal (babolat), lewis hamelton (santander)
  • Teams- manchester united (AIG), england hockey (addidas) arsenal (emirates)
  • Sports- road cycling (sky), premier football league (barclay)

Benefits: increase publicity= increase in sales = increase in money. sponsor associated with something/someone with a good image.

Types of sponsorship: money, equipment, food + drink, accomodation, clothing, training, accessories, travel, facilities

Unnacceptable type of sponsors: financially unstable business's, public scandals, alcohol + tobbacco companies (guinnes/ marboro)

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International and Other Factors

Advantages of sponsorship:

  • gain money- financial support= concentrate on performance
  • free stuff
  • access to high quality equipment
  • bigger + better events if sponsored
  • increase profile of sports

Disadvantages of sponsorship:

  • sponsors can stipulate what they want
  • down to contract so it can be pulled at any point
  • tied to publictiy commitements
  • if company goes bust- no more sponsors
  • pressure to perform to best/ be a good role model
  • restrictions (e.g. have to wear what sponsor wants)
  • difficult for low profile events
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International and Other Factors


Disadvantages of the Olympic Games:

  • Cost= the funding for it is a lot, london 2012 came from sources such as council tax, national lottery. hoped to be offset by tourists
  • Lack of long term jobs= risk that public misled about jobs- only employed for games
  • Maintaining of new facilities= Bejiing 2008 Olympics, venues/facilities arent used known as "white elephants"
  • Traffic= many people travel to see olympics from diff countries, huge numbers of people in + aorund city. more public transport needed, lots more traffic.
  • Pollution= more traffic= more pollution, also increased by the increased number of flights to and from country
  • TV= usual programmed cancelled due to olympics, e.g. bbc only showing olympics so broadcasting other shows on diff channels people may be unaware of.
  • Buildings= more needed for athletes + visitors, norm tower blockes= compact.
  • Threat of Terrorism= security + threat of terrorism= common. London 2012 all bins around london - reduce risk of bombs
  • Pressure= pressure for hosting countries to provide high quality events + facilities.
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School Influences

PESSCLS- physical education school sport and club links

Target= increase %of school sport children - min 2 hrs/week on high-quality sport + beyond curriculum 75% by 2006 + 85% by 2008. By 2010 5-16 offered 4hrs sport/week.

  • specialist sports colleges- hub-school for partnerships, funding initially given here then distributed
  • school sports coordinator- head coordinator of a cluster of schools ourrounding sports college
  • proffessional development- training for teachers to ensure lessons are HIGH QUALITY
  • step in sport- encourage involvement in sports leadership and volunteering, increase involvement of 14-19 yr olds trained + involved.
  • school/club links- links between school PE departments and outside sports clubs- increase involvement + encourage participation. HIGH QUALITY COACHING.
  • gifted and talentd- identify them and support them
  • swimming- raise profile, money invested to ensure more primary schools have access- target that every primary school pupil able to swim 25m.
  • pe and sport investigation- work with school partnerships to monitor + evaluation participation rates
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School Influences

PESSYP- physical education sports strategy for young peope.

Aim= launced 2008- transition from PESSCLS. new "5hr plan"- 2hrs in curriculum + 3hrs out

  • club links- working with national government bodies create high quality opportunities, long term athlete development.
  • coaching- funds avaiable to school sport coaching- recruit more coached- target= 10,00 adult volunteers by 2011. - leading up to olympics
  • competition- national sports week- intra+interschool comps e.g. kent school games
  • disability- 450 multi-sport disability clubs- offer club experience
  • extended activities- extend beyond traditional sports e.g. wii sports, archery, cheerleading
  • gifted and talented- support for exceptional athletes- progress+ develop skills
  • infrastructure- schools sports partnership at centre of strategy 2hrs within curriculum
  • leadership and volunteering- extending step in sport- from 2008-22 increase quantity, quality and diversity of young people engaged in vlunteering + leadership
  • swimming- increased opportunites to take part


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School Influences

National curriculum for PE requirements-

  • outwitting opponents- GAMES
  • accurate repititians of actions, phrases, sequences- GYMNASTICS
  • exploring and community ideas, concepts and emotions- DANCE
  • performing at maximum levels in relation to speed, height, distance, strength and accuracy- ATHLETICS
  • identify and solving problems to overcome challenged of an adventurous nature- OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES
  • exercising safety and efficiently to improve health and wellbeing- HEALTH + FITNESS

schools must offer AT LEAST 4 of the 6 requirements.

Compulsory guidlines-

  • 5-16 year olds must take PE at school
  • schools would also offer physical activities at lunchtime, after school and weekends.
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School Influences

Why do we do PE in school?

  • to improve health + fitness levels
  • provides balance in school life + subjects taught= primarily a practical subject
  • to prepare young people to take part in phyical activity when they leave school
  • provide approves qualifications in line with other subjects
  • to reflect the importanceand value of sport and physical activity in society

Schools promoting participation:

  • Aim of school sport and PE is to promote participation so that all can continue being activie which will lead to healthier living.

How can sport be delivered?

  • timetabled PE lessons
  • extra curricular provisions
  • club+ team practice sessions/ lines with local clubs and outside visitors
  • offering examination lessons/ performance awards
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School Influences

National Healthy Schools- joint project improve social inclusion, raise pupil achievement, improve health. Whole school innitiative.

  • acess to emotional health and well being counsiller/
  • healthy eating in school
  • PSHE lessons up to year 9
  • PE lessons in schools

Impact of PESCCLS: increased opportunties, participation, monitoring and quality.

Impact of PESSYPS: increased opportunties, participation, monitoring and quality. E.g. gold 150 club link projects set up in England, 2005 only 14% school aged children participated - 2010 now 44%.

Role of pupils: schools encourage participation in sport in a variety of different ways: performer, official, oberver, coach, choreographre, captain, leader, organiser- all can lead to.... continued participation into adulthood.

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School Influences

Attitude of teachers:


  • enthusiasm= encourage participation
  • specialised knowledge= " "
  • student teacher relationship
  • level of experience
  • respectful


  • critical may discourage participation
  • lack of experience = " "

Activities available in school- restrictions:

facilities within the school, facilities outside the school, experience + enthusiams + expertise of teachers, access to specialist coaching (e.g. Richard), schools specialism

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very good

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