GCSE Physical Education revision

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 26-04-13 07:24

Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Disabililty

  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Temporary
  • Permanant

Sports and equipment are adapted to people with disabilites e.g the Paralympics

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Age

As you get older:

  • Flexibilty reduces
  • Strength decreases
  • Oxygen capacity reduces (atreries loose elasticity)
  • Longer recovery time
  • Skill levels improve

Age divisions in competitive sports an example of this is school football teams that are spilt into age groups, also international events such as wimbeldon.

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Enviroment

The enviroment can affect participation and performance:

  • Weather
  • Pollution
  • Altitude
  • Humidity
  • Terrain
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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performace - Risk and Challenge

In every activity there is an element of risk and challenge

Risk: The possibilty of suffering harm, loss or danger

Challenge: A test of your ability or resources in demanding situation

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Gender

Body shape, size and pyhsique are different in men and women:

  • Women have a flatter and broader pelvis, smaller heart and lungs, and a higher percentage of fat
  • Women are more flexible due to the fact that have less muscle mass
  • Rates of maturity differ so after the age of 11 teams become single sex

Some sports are shows to suit certain genders (sexual discrimination), e.g football is asscocited with men and netball wiht women

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Activity levels and needs

Competitive:           An activity that involves some form of contest

Recretational:         Any form of play, amusment, perfrmed as a hobby

Individual factors:   Age, Jobs, lesuire time, money

Performance level: Amount of times and level of performance

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that affect performance- Somatotyping

Endomorph- Pear shapes, wide hipe, wide shoulder, tendency to gain weight, suited to rugby

Ectomorph- Slender, thin, narrow shoulders and hips, little muscle and body fat, e.g marathon runners, jockeys or gymnasts

Mesomorph- Wedge shaped, broad, wide shoulders, minimum amount of fat, narrow hips muscled arms and legs, suited to swimming and speed events

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Factors that affect performance

Factors that effect performance- Fatigue and stress

Both can fatigue aand stress can have an impact on performance


  • Extreme pyhsical or mental tiredness caused by exersion
  • Concentration levels will decrease
  • Local muscular fatigue is when a  group of muscles is unable to carry on contracting and movement stops


The body's reaction to a pyhsical, mental or emotional adjustment. Excitement, anxiety or nervousness can cause stress and effect performance

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Internally caused injuries are when the palyer is responsible:

  • Overuse injuries (stress fractors, tennis elbow)
  • Sudden injury (sprain, strain, twisting etc)

External injuries are caused by equipment, oppenent or conditions:

  • Foul play or incorrect action (rules prevent these)
  • Impact injuries (contact or equipment)

Equipment and clothing:

  • Blisters/tightly fitting/faulty/damaged


  • Risk assesment/ warm ups/ rules
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Types of training

Types of training

Circuit training:

  • Fitness circuit - to increase fitness, strength and cardiovascular endurance (excersises such as pressups, situps, shuttle runs etc)
  • Skills circuit- excersises aimed at developing certain skills
  • Running the circuit- you can either do timed circuits, fixed load or varied laps

Weight training:

  • Improves muscular, strength, size, bulk, tone. Done in reps and sets using free standing or specialised weights
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Apects of training

Aspects of training

  • Warm up
  • Fitness or excerisse phase
  • Skills or teamplay phase
  • Warm down

Training threshold - the minimum heart rate to be achieved to ensure fitness improves

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Training methods

Training Methods

  • Continuous training (keep heart rate high)
  • Interval training (periods of work, periods of rest)
  • Fartlek training (form of interval training)
  • Multistage fitness test (or bleep test)
  • Alltitude training (improves performance at sea level)
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Training - Levels of participation

Training- Levels of participation

Pre-season - The time of leading up to the majority of competition, concentrating on fitness and developing techniques

Peak season- This is the main competitive period concentration on skills and ongoing fitness

Post season- The main period of rest and recovery but level of general fitness needs to be kept up

Avaliable time and funds can also affect levels of particpation

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Prinicples of training










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Components of fitness

Components of fitness

Strength (dynamic, explosive and static)


Power (maximum speed and maximum strength)

Cardio Endurance


Agility (combination of flexibilty and speed)



Reaction time


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Basic - simple skills eg throw, catch, run, jump etc

Complex - High levels of co-ordination

Open - Situations that are constantly changing, skills that have to be adapted to the game

Closed- Situations that are constant and unchanging

Guidance: Visual, verbal manual

Feeback: intrinsic and extrinsic

Practise: Whole, part, fixed and variable

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Vocational Oppurtunites

Vocational oppurtunities


  • Professional- Full time job in which they get paid
  • Amateur- Taken part in as a hobby
  • Semi professional - Get paid but may also may a job


  • PE teacher
  • Coach
  • Trainer
  • Physiotherapist
  • Sports managment
  • Personal trainer
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The skeleton

The Skeleton


  • Hinge ( e.g elbow)
  • Ball and socket (e.g hip)
  • Pivot (e.g wrist)
  • Saddle (e.g thumb)
  • Gliding (e.g the hand bones)
  • Condyloid (e.d wrist)

Tendons: very strong, non-elastic cords joining the muscle to the bone

Cartilage: Tough and flexible tissue act as a buffer between bones and joints

Liagments: Link the joints

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The skeleton

The skeleton


  • Movements at joints
  • Support for muscles and vital organs
  • Shape of body
  • Protection
  • Blood-cell production in the bone marrow


  • Long bones (e.g femur)
  • Short bones (e.g phalanges)
  • Flat or plate bones (e.g skull)
  • Irregular bones (e.g vertebrae)
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Role of skeletal system

Role of skeletal system


  • Freely moveable (e.g synovial joints)
  • Slightly moveable (e.g vertebrae in the spine)
  • Immovable (e.g skull)


  • Flexion - e.g bending the elbow
  • Extension - when the angle at the joint is increased
  • Abduction- movement of bone away from midline of body
  • Abbduction- Where the bone moves inwards towards the body
  • Rotation- Where the bone or limb moves freely in a cave
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Muscle Movements

Muscle movements

  • Flexors- muscles that bend a limb at a joint by contracting
  • Extensors- work with and against flexors and straighten a limb a joint by contracting
  • Adductors- move a limb towards the body
  • Abductors- move a limb away from the body

Isotonic contractions- can be concentric (when muscle shortens) or eccentric (when muscle lengthens to original state)

Isometric contractions- Muscles working to keep, joint stable

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Muscle movements

Muscle movements

Origin- the end of the muscle attached to the fixed bone

Insertion- the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves

Prime mover- the muscle that initally contracts to start a movement (also know agonist)

Antagonist- the muscle that relaxes to allow a movement to take place

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Muscular system

Muscular system

Three types of muscle:

1. skeletal- Know voluntary muscles make up majority of muscles in the body. these muscles are under our consoious control

2. Cardiac muscles- Invountary muscles they work automatically and constantly

3. Involuntary- muscles you cannot control found in the walls of intestines and blood vessels. They contract to allow crucial body funtions

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The respiratory system

The respiratory system

Aerobic respiration: respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. For example marathon running

Glucose + oxygen = (energy) + carbon dioxide + water

Anaerobic respiration: respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen and an example is 100m sprint. No oxygen in muscles

Glucose = (energy) + lactic acid

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Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular system

  • Blood pressure- the force of the circulating blood on the walls of the artiries
  • Max heart rate = 220 minus age
  • Training zone- the range of the heart rate within a specific training effect will take place
  • Cardio. endurance- The ability of the heart and lungs to keep supplying oxygen in the blood stream to the body
  • Improving cardio endurance- take part in excersise that raises your pulse
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Definition of health:

A state of complete pyhsical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

  • Performance enhancing drugs are unlawful drugs that help improve performance
  • Smoking can cause bronchitis, lung cancer, heart disease etc
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Healthy lifestyle

Healthy lifestyle

Sedentary- Physically inactive for long periods of time

Changes to body when excersising:

  • Heart rate increases
  • Body temperature increases
  • Muscles become tired or heavy
  • Increased breathing
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First Aid

First Aid





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Social groupings

Social groupings


  • Can get you involved in sports
  • Huge influence on lifestyle


  • Can have positive effect as encouragement helps motivate them to do sport
  • Can also have a negative effect


  • Certain sports are associated with certain genders


  • Can be an affect on particaption due to clothing
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ICT in sport

Ict in sport

Using things such as hawk-eye, hot spot, vibration sensors, slow motion camera etc

All this helps to referee or umpire to make a decision, This also helps pundits and professionals to analysis sporting games and events.

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Role Models

Role Models

Good characteristics:

  • Competing or playing fairly anf by the rules
  • Being inspirational
  • Good levels performer in their own night and sucessful and famous through this
  • Setting trends
  • Shaping attitudes
  • Being accessiable
  • Taking part in popular in popular activity

For the sportsperson this could mean, no privacy, media pressure, pressure on status

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  • Concentrate on their , sport wihtout fincial worries
  • Sports can be promoted and successful
  • Competitions can be bigger and better
  • Sponsors will get get increased advertising, revenue, image etc


  • Sponsors may "take over" the sport to dictate rules changes, clothing requirements, or timing at the events due to media links and coverage
  • If the image of the sport is the damage the sponsor can withdraw support
  • Minority sports find it difficult to find sponsors
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unacceptable sponsorships:

  • Tabacco or smoking companies
  • Alchol companies
  • Fast food

Depending on the sponsor  you can recieve free, equipment, clothing, accersories, transport and travel, training, entry fees and expenses

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Lesuire and Recreation

Lesuire and recreation

Lesuire time:

The time you have spare when you can choose what to do (time not eating/sleeping/hygiene/ and at work). there are two types of lesuire; active and passive 


  • Intrisic reward- and activity that gives a person individual satisfaction
  • Extrinsic reward- An activity done for a reward that is visible to others
  • Activites differ due to age, location, provision and cost
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Sport in the media

Sports in the media

  • Tv
  • Radio
  • Internet
  • Newspapers and magazines

The four main types of output are:

  • Entertaining programmes
  • Informative programmes
  • Educational programmes
  • Instructive programmes
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