PE - Bones (GCSE)

Some revision notes to make you an expert on bones in the body in no time!

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Why do we have bones?

1. Support and shape - the skeleton gives our body its structure.

2. Protection - bones are tough and they protect our delicate organs, e.g. the ribs protect the heart and lungs.

3. Movement - the skeleton moves through joints.

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What bones do we have in...

Our arms?

  • Humerous, Radius and Ulna

Our legs?

  • Femur, Tibia and Fibula

Body core?

  • Pelvis
  • Vertebrae
  • Ribs
  • Scapula
  • Clavical
  • Sternum
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Joints

There are 5 different types of joints...

1. Extension = opening a joint

2. Flexion = closing a joint

3. Abduction = moving away from an imaginary centre line (moving leg outwards)

4. Adduction = moving towards an imaginary centre line (moving leg back inwards)

5. Rotation = turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise

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Joints (continued)...

There are 2 different types of freely moving joints...

1. Ball and Socket joints - e.g. hips and shoulders.

2. Hinge joints - e.g. knees and elbows.

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The hip

- The hip is a joint.

- The bones which meet here are the femur and the pelvis.

- It is a ball and socket joint.

- The movement available is ... Rotation, Felxion, Extension, Abduction and Adduction.

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The shoulder

- The shoulder is a joint.

- The bones which meet here are the humerous and scapula.

- It is a ball and socket joint.

- The movement available is ... Rotation, Felxion, Extension, Abduction and Adduction.

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The elbow

- The elbow is a joint.

- The bones which meet here are the humerous, raduis and ulna.

- It is a hinge joint.

- The movement available is ... Felxion, Extension.

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The knee

- The knee is a joint.

- The bones which meet here are the femur, tibia and fibula.

- It is a hinge joint.

- The movement available is ... Felxion, Extension.

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The ankle

- The ankle is a joint.

- The bones which meet here are tibia, fibula and tarsals.

- It is a hinge joint.

- The movement available is ... Plantar Flexion (point toes) and Dorsi-Flexion.

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Effects of exercise on Skeletal System...

1. Increases bone density and makes bones stronger.

2. More durable.

3. You will be less likely to get osteoporosis.

4. Ligaments become stronger (less likely to get injuries linked with the ligaments).

Ligaments = hold the bones together.

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