Paper 2: British Depth Study: Liberal Reforms

Simple bullet points summarising the the key points in the British Depth Study topic of Liberal Reforms.

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Rowntree:

Seebohm Rowntree: 2 years Research in York.

Poverty caused by:

  • Old age
  • Illness
  • Trade Cycle

Felt the country should have ways to protect the: Young, Old, Ill and Un-employed.

Impact:

  •  Supported Liberal Gov. all his life and was an influence
  • Had Connections in Liberal Gov. (David Lloyd George)
  • Wrote a book.
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Booth:

Charles Booth: 9 years research in London

Poverty Caused by:

  • Low wages
  • Casual work
  • Trade depression
  • Old age
  • Illness

Impact:

  • Respected businessman
  • Wrote a set of books
  • Joined Liberal group

 

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Liberals Overview

Liberals stood for:

  • Each person has rights
  • Gov. provide security, freedom, laws and police
  • Poverty was a REAL problem. (persuaded by Booth and Rowntree)

1906 election Liberal party came to power, brought in series of welfare reform. Wanted to improve lives of: Old, Sick, Young, Un-employed.

 

 

 

 

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Why Liberal Gov. introduced reforms to help Young,

National Efficiency (Workforce):

  • From 1870 plus USA and Germany challenged Britians Empire
  • Germany had a welfare programme, impressed Lloyd George
  • Improved health and created more efficient workforce
  • Forign competition made jobs scarce, not (just) laziness

National Efficiency (Boer War):

  • 1899 & 1902 Britian fighting for territory in South Africa
  • Half recriuts un-fit due to ill health
  • In poor areas 69% un-fit
  • Recriuts from poorer palcess had so little food, grew different
  • Army had to lower height limit
  • Set up Comitee on Physical detoriation, influenced Liberals
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Why Liberal Gov. introduced reforms to help Young,

Social Reformers:

  • Rowntree had connections in Liberal Gov.
  • George (Chancellor) agreed with Rowntree - Not always fault of poor.
  •                                                               - Role of Gov. to support poor.

Politics:

  • Main Rivals Conservative Party (created welfare programmes when in power)
  • Labour got votes from working class
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Why Liberal Gov. introduced reforms to help Young,

Scale of the problem:

  • Poor people died earlier
  • More chance in getting illnesses and injuries
  • 10% population owned 92% of countries wealth
  • Britian in some palces was like a developing country (as we would class it now-a-days)
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Effectiveness of Liberal Reforms:

Group - Before Liberal Reforms - Measures by Liberals - Limitations of Reforms

  • Children.
  • No real system, some charaties helped families with children, orphans in workhouses
  • 1906 Liberals brought act that said authorities had to provide meals, fed 14 million children by 1914.
  • 1907 medical check.
  • 1912 school clinics.
  • 1908 Children and Young person's act, now parents could be prosecuted for neglect and it was illegal to insure  a child's life.The Act included courts for child crime, also set up special 'homes' for youn offenders so they don't go to prison.
  • Feeding was not force-able, only 50% of children were fed.
  • Medial Checks differentiated as it's was up to the local authorities.
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Effectiveness of Liberal Reforms:

Group - Before Liberal Reforms - Measures by Liberals - Limitations of Reforms

  • The Old.
  • Charities, Family and Workhouses.
  • 1908 brought out Old age Pension. Over 70 you got 5 shillings. Married couples got 7s 6d. In the fisrt year 650,000 collected Old Age Pension, number claiming Outdoor relief fell by 80,000.
  • Was directly funded , not just by local measures.
  • If you got £31 or over you didn't recieve pension.
  • Only if you lived in Britian in 20 years.
  • Could sya you didn't deserve it if they thought you didn't work properly.
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Effectiveness of Liberal Reforms:

Group - Before Liberal Reforms - Measures by Liberals - Limitations of Reforms

  • The Sick.
  • Charities, Family and Workhouses.
  • National Insurance Act - Part 1 - 1911. Any man/women under £160 a year had to join. Paying 4d a week they would get a stamp, Employer added 3d and Gov. 2d. Got 26 weeks of Sick pay, 10s per week.
  • Widows didn't get counted or workers family.
  • Contribute towards it - Tax.
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Effectiveness of Liberal Reforms:

Group - Before Liberal Reforms - Measures by Liberals - Limitations of Reforms

  • Un-employed or Under-employed.
  • Outdoor Relief, Volountary Labour exchanges.
  • ALready Laboue exchanges in 1911, to help people get jobs.
  • 1909 Labour Gov. set up thier own.
  • By 1913 sending 3,000 people to jobs each day.
  • National Insurance Act - Part 2 - dealt with Un-employment in trades such as: Building, ship building and engineering.
  • Everyone would contribute and so Un-employed got 7s, for up to 15 weeks.
  • Money ffrom NIA2 didn't supply the whole family.
  • Didn't help all jobs which caused un-employment.
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Reaction to Liberal Reform:

Political:

  • Houses of Lords didn't want to pay for something that didn't benefit them
  • Lloyd George said the Rich didn't earn thier money so should pay for reforms
  • House of Commons passed the budget, but House of Lords didn't - had superior holding over Laws that needed passing
  • Government brought in Parliment Act - House of Lords agreed to never defeat a budget and it could only delay a bill, not stop it
  • Prime Minister called two general elections in 1910 - 1st for people's vote on budget, 2nd for people's vote on reforming House of Lords, less than 1906
  • Labour wanted to spread wealth all around, Take money from taxation
  • Conservatives called it 'Socalist', Labour party criticised budget for not going far enough
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Reaction to Liberal Reform:

1908s People's Budget:

  • Anyone earning over £3,000 per year paid 1s 2d(6p)
  • Anyone earning less only gave 9d (4p)
  • Earned over  £5,000 pay super-tax, death and land tax. Petrol tax also introduced
  • Friendly socities and Insurance didn't give National Insurance to widows
  • Workers didn't like less pay
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Answering Message Questions: (Split them into 3 pa

Message

  • Your Inference (opinion/idea) of what the cartoonist's opinion is - not what you see, but what you read into it

Source

  • You need to describe the details from the source and explain how it supports the message

Knowledge

  • You need to support the message with the event it mentions. If there is a year on the source the knowledge must be about that year
  • 
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Comments

Megan

I think the last slide might be missing the information?

Shaikh

Yeh sorry, i forgot to save it, should be sorted now.

Aparna

Thanks, I liked the layout of the 'effectiveness of Liberal Reforms'. I'm going to use it now :D

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