Different Kinds of Society

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  • Created by: Em
  • Created on: 28-05-16 04:13

Hunter/Gatherer Society

  • People in this society primarily survived by hunting (animals, fish etc) and gathering (plants)
  • There are very few of these societies left and they are on the verge of extinction 
  • They were typically small, mobile, nomadic and triba (they shared a certain set of values and traditions) 
  • Labour was divided equally and was mostly assigned based on gender 
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Pastoralist/Horticulturalist Society

  • These societies first emerged 12,000 years ago and the members of this society pastured animals for food and transportation
  • Some of these societies still exist today, they are mostly in the desert lands of North Africa
  • Horticultural is the business of growing plants, pastoral is land used for keep or grazing cattle
  • Domesticating animals allow a more managable food supply (rather than hunting animals)
  • These societies can produce extra food and are able to store their food for the future, this provides them with stability that enables them to trade with other communities 
  • Unlike hunter/gatherer societies, people in these societies can do things non-survival related (they can become healers, craftsmen, traders etc)
  • Depletion of the land's resources and dwindling water supplies force people to leave
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Agricultural Societies

  • These societies use technological advances to cultivate crops such as wheat, barley, rice and corn
  • These technological changes happened 8,500 years ago and it helped increase food supplies which led to larger populations
  • The greater surplus resulted in towns that became the center of trade
  • Trading supported people in the town as they didn't have to look for food anymore
  • Greater degrees of social stratification started to appear, before women gathered food with men but because the food supply was stable, they became less important to men
  • Villages and towns would expand into other areas which would in turn cause conflicts with other communities
  • Because of these conflicts, food was given to warriors in exchange for protection against other towns or villages
  • The nobility organised warriors to protect the towns/villages from invasion, through this the nobility was able to get goods from the 'lesser people' in society 
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Industrial Society

  • This society is based on using machines (particularly fuel-driven ones) to produce goods 
  • Sociologists refer to the 18th century as the industrial revolution which first appeared in Britian
  • An increase in produtivity meant transport improved to facilitate the transport of products 
  • Wealth was attained by the few who owned factories and the 'masses' found jobs working in these factories
  • 'Home cottages' started as the workplace becamse less prevalent and families didn't play such a big role in their children's education
  • People's life expectancy rose and their health improved, cultural diversity also increased
  • Jobs in factories were found in large cities and social power was given to the businesses and goverment officials 
  • The distribution of social power led to struggles between industrialists (someone who manages an industry) and workers 
  • Labour unions and welfare organisations were formed over concerns about worker's welfare
  • Bureaucratic forms of organisation started to develop 
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Post-Industrial Societies

  • The technological revolution (the invention of the computer microchip) is based on information, knowledge and the selling of goods
  • This society is being shaped by the human mind helped by computer aid
  • The key to wealth and power seems to lie in the ability to store, generate, manipulate and sell information
  • Sociologists predict there will be increased levels of education, training, consumerism, availability of goods and social mobility in the future of this society 
  • Sociologists are also concerned about potential 'social divisions based on those who have appropriate education and those that don't 
  • Sociologists hope the post-industrial society will be less charaterised by social conflict as everyone works together to solve society's problems 
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