optimising performance and evaluating contemporary issues




  • part of balanced diet
  • avoids dehydration
  • 50-60% body mass
  • regulate body temperature
  • carries nutrients and oxygen to cells in plasma
  • converts food to energy
  • aids respiration
  • removes waste
  • protects/cushions vital organs


  • ions of salt
  • ions are electrically charged particles
  • dehyration occurs when amount of water falls below normal disrupting electrolytes  
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electroyltic balance

  • concentration of eletrolytes within fluids of the body 
  • loss of water through;waste products,sweating and exhaling 
  • changes electrolytic balance 

problems if electrolytic balance is unbalanced 

  • drowisness and vision impairment 
  • muscle weakness,fatigue and cramps 
  • interference with neural control of heart (abnormal rhythm)
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what is it?

  • links with the energy system 
  • energy is in the form of ATP (helps aid resynthesis of ATP)
  • ATP-------> ADP + P + energy 
  • PC---------> P + C + energy 

why take it?

  • increase phosphocreatine stores (PC)
  • used by sprinters,weightlifters (high intensity activities)
  • mixed evidence to show positive benefits 

side effects

  • muscle cramps
  • diarrhoea/vomitting 
  • water rentention 
  • psychological effects 
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protein supplements

what is it?

  • used for growth and repair of muscles 
  • protein drink is 70% protein 

Why take it?

  • build more muscle mass
  • maybe needed by vegetarian to supplement diet
  • not needed if you have a balanced diet

side effects 

  • liver,heart and kidney problems (if overused)
  • cramps 
  • vomitting and diarrhoea 
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herbal remedies

what is it?

  • use of plants/extracts 
  • administered via oils and infusions 
  • e.g. arnica (reduce muscle soreness)
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what is it?

  • stimulant (not banned) 
  • can extent prolonged exercise by using fats to produce ATP
  • against the rules in large quantities 
  • acts as a diuretic ( makes you wee)

why take it?

  • used by endurance athletes/games players


  • increase mental altertness
  • reduces effects of fatigue 
  • allows performer to continue at a higher intensity for longer 
  • improve reaction time/decision making (overall better performance)

side effects 

  • anxiety
  • addiction 
  • stomach upsets 
  • loss of fine control 
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bicarbonate of soda

what is it?

  • white soluble compound used in effervescent drinks/antacid 
  • soda loading- to delay the onset of fatigue during anaerobic exercise 
  • natural bicarbonate (part of buffering) 
  • ablitity of blood to compensate for increase in H ions and maintain pH
  • H ions diffusing from muscle cells 
  • increased bicarbonate H ions out quicker 

why take it?

  • athletes can work harder (exercise can continue)
  • events between 1-7 mins at near max intensity 
  • sports with repeated anaerobic burst (games players)
  • interval training 
  • calculate amount to be taken and divide into 5 doses 
  • take at 30 min intervals 9start 3hrs before)

side effects

  • stomach cramps
  • diarrhoea 
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temperature impact 

  • regulation temperature (36-37 degrees)

temperature warming

  • clothing 
  • shivering 
  • sufficient energy through food
  • below 35 degrees (hypothermia)

temperature cooling 

  • vasodilation (blood vessles dialte/open)
  • sweating
  • evaporation 
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glycaemix index

  • system ranking carbohydrates based on how quickly they are converted to glucose and enter the bloodstream

maintaining the balance (before)

  • snack/meal (2-4 hrs before)
  • drink (4-600ml 2-3hrs before)
  • 150-350ml 15 mins before)


  • drink whenever possible 
  • carbs with higher glycaemic index absorbed more quickly 


  • restore water and electrolytic balance 
  • replenish carbohyrdates 
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electrolytic balance

problems if the electrolytic balance is not maintained 

  • increase in heart rate 
  • increas in viscosity (too thick can lead to blockages)
  • less blood and oxygen to muscles 
  • increase in body temperature 
  • slows reaction time and decision making 
  • muscle cramps (build up of lactic acid,slat and lack of oxygen)
  • muscle fatigue 
  • build up of latic acid 
  • irregular heart beat (amount of blood isnt consistent)
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performers and optimal weight gain


  • weight (kg) divided height squared (m)

body fat

  • amount of fat you have in your body

measuring body fat

  • skin fold calipours 
  • bio electrical impedence 

manipulating body fat 

  • diet 
  • training 
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anabolic steroids (testosterone)

what is it?

  • hormone that increases protein use and muscle cell production 


  • increase synthesis of protein within muscle cells (build up of muscle tissue)
  • decrease in fat muscles

side effects

  • liver and kidney tumours 
  • high blood pressure
  • increased cholesterol 
  • damages peripheral nerves in body 
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anabolic steriods contiued

who would take it?

  • power athletes

how is it taken?

  • either taken orally or imjected 

how does it work?

  • decrease amount of fat in muscle and causes decline in breakdown rate of muscle building proteins/speeds up recovery time 
  • allows heavier training regimes
  • aids storage of protein 
  • builds muscle tissue 
  • train for longer and at a higher intensity 
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Human growth hormone (HGH)

what is it?

  • artifical human growth hormone,when produces using recombinant DNA, this looks identical to the natural hormone 


  • enhances performance of explosive activities by increasing muscle mass (building more muscle) and repairing bones (train more),ligaments and tendons 

side effects

  • joint swelling and pain (more fluid)
  • high blood pressure 
  • abnormal bone and cartilage growth 
  • irregular heart rhythms 
  • increased risk of diabetes
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Human Growth Hormone (HGH) continued

who would take it?

  • shot put
  • weightlifters 
  • (power athletes)

How is it taken?

  • by injecting it into the skin 

how does it work?

  • regulates growth,controls the turn over of muscle bone and collagen and the regulation of fat metabolism 

exercise seen as a stimulant 

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Beta blockers

what is it?

  • blocks the release of adrenaline,causing HR to stay low and helping the performer stay calm by reducing tension 


  • blocks adrenaline/noradrenaline
  • reduces tension and calms performer 
  • causes arteries to widen,slow action of heart and decrease its force of contraction
  • reduces blood pressure and reduced workload for the heart 

side effects

  • tiredness/sleep disturbance 
  • cold hands and feet
  • dizziness
  • diarrhoea and sickness
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Beta blockers continued

who would take it?

  • archery/shooting athletes

how is it taken?

  • orally

how does it work?

  • causes vasodilation,slow action of heart and decreases its force of contraction 
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EPO (erythropoietin)

What is it?

  • naturally occuring hormone responsible for regulation of red blood cell production 


  • increse red blood cell count 
  • can carry more oxygen 
  • aerobic respiration more efficient increase VO2 max 
  • linked with altitude training (more Hb for 6 weeks)

Side effects

  • increased risk of heart disease 
  • blood more viscous (greater strain on heart,clotting)
  • headaches 
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EPO continued

who would take it?

  • cyclists 
  • (endurance athletes)

how is it taken?

  • orally

how does it work?

  • stimulates the production of red blood cells which improves delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the working muscles,thus allowing you to run faster 
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specialised training

Glycogen loading 


  • to increase muscle glycogen stores and stored in muscles and liver 
  • supercompensation (store more glycogen than normal)
  • used by endurance althetes 

aim of glycogen loading 

  • delay fatigue (have more energy)
  • increase endurance (by increasing ATP)
  • trained athletes may rest for several days before eating a high carb diet
  • increase water consumption 

glycogen loading methods (method 1)

  • decrease glycogen levels
  • increase endurance training 
  • 3 days low carb diet 
  • tapering (gradually decreasing) training levels
  • few days before comp high carb diet 
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specialised training

glycogen training continued 

glycogen loading methods (method 2)

  • day before comp, 3 min high intensity training/activity
  • opens 'carb window'
  • immediately (within 20 mins) have a high carb diet 

why are each of these methods good for athletes?

  • allows althletes to emty glycogen stores before replacing them so they dont become sluggish due to excessive carbs
  • make sure they are full before performance 
  • second method is instant 
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specialised training

altitute training 

  • occurs over 2000m/8000ft above sea levels 
  • PpO2 is lower and this less oxygen avaliable 
  • body produces EPO (erythropoietin)
  • usually done for at least 30 days/month

3 phases 

  • acclimatisation 
  • primary training 
  • recovery 


  • starts immediately
  • athlete gets used to PpO2 
  • not overdo training and more time for recovery
  • lasts between 3-10 days 
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specialised training

altitude training continued 

primary training 

  • between 1-3 weeks 
  • progressively increas training volume 
  • until athlete reaches level it would be at sea level 


  • lasts between 2-5 days
  • preparation for athletes returning to sea level
  • training volume and intensity is tapered 
  • recover completely from fatigue 
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specialised training

altitude training continued 

improving performance

  • increase number of red blood cells
  • increase Hb and myoglobin 
  • increase 02 carrying capacity
  • increase tolerance to lactic acid 
  • delays OBLA (onset blood lactate accumulation)-delays lactic acid
  • benefits last up to 6-8 weeks

hinder performance

  • altitude sickness
  • training at the same intesity is difficult (loss of fitness)
  • benefits lost within a few days back at sea level
  • psychological problems- travel/time away from home 

alternative methods

  • altitude/O2 tents (replicates lower PpO2)
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specialised training


  • hopping,bounding,medicine ball 


  • develop power,speed and explosive strength 
  • involves fast twitch fibres (contract more)
  • eccentric muscle contraction happens first followed by the concentric contraction 
  • stretch reflex activates (detected by the muscle spindlers,sends nerve impulse to spinal cord/CNS)
  • elastic energy stored (protects overstretching of muscles to avoid injury)

3 phases (stretch shortening cycle)

  • pre stretch (eccentric/elastic energy)
  • amortisation (start of concentric)
  • muscle contraction (movement)
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specialised training

PNF stretching (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)


  • increase flexibility 
  • best with a partner
  • uses alternating contraction and relaxation movements 
  • can be passive (no associated muscular contraction)
  • active (voluntary muscle contraction)

CRAC technique

  • Contract-Relax-Antagonist-Contract =isotonic muscle contraction 

autogenic inhibition 

  • acchieved where the muscle gradually relaxes following isometric contractions immediately before a passive stretch (makes muscle fibres stretch further)
  • muscle spindles detect how far a muscle is stretching and produce the stretch reflex 

Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)

  • senses how much tension is being placed on the tendon 
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specialised training


  • dividing the year into training cycles
  • based on olympics/world games

macro cycle(long term training plan with a long term goals often a single competition)

  • long term planing 
  • e.g. netball world cup (to win)

meso cycle ( goal based block of training sessions)

  • 2-8 weeks/month
  • e.g. improve their attacking/defending skills (tournaments)

micro cycle (repeating groups/pattern of training sessions)

  • week/individual training sessions 
  • e.g. the drills (pass and follow)
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specialised training

periodisation contiuned

preparation/pre-season training

  • developing general fitness
  • conditioning and quantity rather than quality 


  • refinement of skills and maintaining fitness
  • quality rather than quantity 
  • tapering- decrease intesity of training ( dont want to get injured)
  • peaking- preparation for a specific competition 
  • transition phase- out of season revovery period 
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prevention of injuries

How would you prevent or try to prevent injuries?

  • protective equipment e.g. shin pads
  • warm up/cool down (removal of lactic acid to stop DOM's)
  • clothing e.g. football boots 
  • checking even and consistent playing surfaces
  • balanced diet and staying hydrated 
  • following rules 
  • ensuring the coach knows everyones capability to prevent overtraining 
  • improving flexibility (prevent strain)
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  • clothing

should be comfortable and durable 

when in different climates layering up if cold 

correct clothing for adequate movement,breathable which allows ventilation 

e.g.football shirts 

  • shoes and boots 

fit correctly to avoid blisters 

laces to be tied to prevent trips and falls and more support 

correct shoes for the activity 

e.g. ballet pumps/studded rugby boots tighten the studs

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  • correct equipment 

not broken/bent 

good quality 

specific to the sport

  • protective equipment

covering parts of the body to ensure they arent damaged 

e.g. gum shield/shin pads 

  • taping and bracing 

taping/wearing a brace to support the muscle/joint (holds everything place)

e.g. ankle support (netball player)

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  • strength training and conditioning 

core strength (increases balance thus can hold yourself better and have better posture)

conditioning (repeating it and maintaining core strength via conditions)

  • overtraining

can cause muscle fatigue due to too much strain on the muscle and they may suffer from DOM's due to intense longer training

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warm up

warm up

  • 5-10 mins light cardio e.g. jogging 
  • 10-15 mins dynamic stretching 
  • 10-15 mins sports specific drills 

why warm up?

  • increase muscle temperature 
  • increase blood flow and oxygen to muscles 
  • increase speed of nerve impulses making you faster
  • increase range of motion of joints (flexibility) reducing the risk of tearing muscles nd ligaments
  • mentally focused on the training/competiton 
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cool down

cool down 

  • 5-10 mins light cardio e.g. jogging/walking 
  • 5-10 mins static stretching 

why cool down?

  • gradually lower heart and breathing rate
  • remove lactic acid 
  • reduce risk of muscle soreness
  • psychologically calms you down 
  • reduces chances of dizziness and or fainting 
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  • Rest,prevent further injury
  • Ice,to reduce swelling 
  • Compresion,to aid in reducing swelling (straping)
  • Elevation,above the heart to prevent blood rushing to the injured fluid in the body goes to the injured area to protect it 
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preventing injuries

hyperbaric chamber

  • delivers oxygen at a higher pressure 
  • 100% pure oxygen (2.5 X more than normal)
  • Hb then becomes full saturated
  • excess oxygen dissolved in plasma 
  • oxygen reaches body parts not normally saturated 
  • increased blood supply 
  • aim to reduce the pressure at injured area 
  • increase white blood cell activity at the injured site 
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preventing injuries

Ice baths 

  • prevent DOM's
  • sit in ice cold water 5-20mins 
  • causes vasoconstriction 
  • restricting blood flow to area to reduce swelling
  • leave the ice bath- vasodilation-new blood to area 
  • fresh oxygen removes lactic acid
  • some research-limited value

Improving DOM's 

  • warm up/cool down
  • massage
  • ice baths
  • gradually increasing intensity of work
  • avoid eccentric contrations early in sessions  
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lactate and VO2 max

What happens when we perform the multi stage fitness test?

  • HR increases
  • BR increases 
  • perspiration 
  • O2 transported to the working muscles 
  • lactic acid builds up in the muscles 
  • increased H+ ions in the muscles 
  • electrolytic balance is lost due to sweating 
  • fatigue 
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lactate and VO2 max

Relationship between VO2 max and lactate threshold?

  • intensity increase VO2 max increases (linear relationship/positive correlation)
  • lactic threshold occurs at high intensity e.g.running at the highest intesity (sprint) it joins VO2 max
  • occurs during anaerobic exercise (due to not recieving O2)
  • level of exercise intensity at which you are producing more lactate than can be remoed or resynthesised 
  • convert lactate to pyruvate into mitochondria or back into glycogen 
  • causes muscle fatigue

factors effecting 

  • more acidic environment 
  • lack of glucose 
  • change of chemical balance affecting their ability to contract 
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lactate and VO2 max

What is OBLA?

  • onset of blood lactate accumulation 
  • lactic acid starts to accumulate within the blood/muscle;rapid increase follows
  • stars 4mmol/litre
  • body cannot get enough O2 to breakdown lactic acid 

Lactate sampling

  • taking blood samples to measure levels of lactic acid 
  • ensure training is at correct intensity 
  • provides accurate/objective measure
  • measures OBLA/lactic threshold (occurs 4mmols)
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lactate and VO2 max

Factors affecting OBLA and the rate of Lactate accumuation

  • intensity of exericse 

higher intensity OBLA occurs faster 

  • fitness of performer 

physiological factors due to training

more mitochondria/denser capillary network/improved gas exchange

  • VO2 max of performer/buffering 

highe level more delayed OBLA

  • respiratiory exchange ration (RER)

closer to 1.00 quicker OBLA

  • muscle fibre type

if slow twitch fibre,delay OBLA 

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lactate and VO2 max

Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)

  • ratio of CO2 released to O2 used 
  • estimates use of fats and carbs during exercise (calulates energy expenditure)
  • tells performer if they are working aerobically/anerobically (the energy system used)
  • RER close to 1= carbs
  • RER close to 0.7=fats 
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