TREATY OF VERSAILLES: following WWI. Germany were forced to sign and had no say in the terms. The Big 3: Georges Clemenceau; France, Woodrow Wilson; USA, David Lloyd-George; UK
G erman land lost: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Upper Silesia and West Prussia to Poland and demilitarised Rhineland
A rmed forces restrictions: Army: 100000 men; no conscription; 6 naval ships; 50000 men in the navy; no submarines; no planes; no armoured vehicles
R eparations: £6600 million to France, Belgium and Britain
G uilt for the war; Article 231: Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war
LE ague of Nations: to maintain world peace. Germany not allowed to join until it had 'proved itself'
HITLER JOINS THE DAP (GERMAN WORKERS PARTY)
Later, this would become the Nazi Party which Hitler would lead.
WEIMAR REPUBLIC DEMOCRATICALLY VOTED INTO THE REICHSTAG
President Friedrich Ebert
Situated in Weimar as Berlin was deemed 'too great a risk' with uprisings
The first ever democratic vote in Germany
Proportional representation: number of votes = number of seats in the Reichstag
Leaders seen as 'November Criminals' for signing the Treaty of Versailles
Led by Rosa Luxembourg
A group of Communists who didn't agree with democracy
1920 & 1921
KAPP'S PUTSCH, BERLIN
Led by Wolfgang Kapp
Freikorps - ex-soldiers who wanted Germany to be ruled by the army and hated communism and democracy in equal measure
HITLER BECOMES LEADER OF THE DAP
HITLER CREATES THE STORMTROOPERS (SA)
1922 & 1923
GERMANY FAIL TO PAY REPARATIONS TO FRANCE
Germany are granted a moratorium (extension) of pay-date but fail once again, in August to pay reparations
THE FRENCH INVADE THE RUHR
Germany can't pay back reparations, so France take the industrial Ruhr as payment. In response, President Ebert orders workers to go on strike.
As a result of the strike, the government has to pay the workers even though no money is being made from produce from the Ruhr. More money is printed by the government but this makes each note worth less than before and hyperinflation happens.
8TH NOVEMBER 1923: MUNICH PUTSCH
To gain from the ill-feeling throughout Germany as a result of hyperinflation and lack of confidence in the Weimar Republic, Hitler organises the Munich Putsch.
The Putsch was originally organised by Hitler and 2 politicians - Kahr and Lossow. However, they backed out at the last minute.
Hitler and the SA marched on a Beer Hall in Munich where Kahr and Lossow were meeting and threatened them if they would not rebel. They agreed, and went home.
The next day, Hitler marched on Munich to take power, but Kahr had called in police and reinforcements. Hitler was arrested and went to prison for a year.
During his time in prison, Hitler realised he couldn't come to power by revolution so plotted his new strategy, as well as writing Mein Kampf. ('My Struggle')
THE DAWES PLAN
America lent Germany money so they could pay back French reparations, so in turn, France could pay back loans to America.
The Dawes Plan was dreamt up by Gustav Stresemann and Charles Dawes. Together, they got rid of Germany's old currency and replaced it with the Rentenmark and Germany got back on it's feet for a few years.
HITLER IS RELEASED FROM PRISON
1925: MEIN KAMPF IS PUBLISHED AND BECOMES A BESTSELLER
In Mein Kampf, Nazi ideology is outlined.
1926 - 1929
GERMANY JOINS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Instead of once annual reparation payments, Germany paid two payments in order to somehow pay back the vast amount on money owed. It also increased the reparation deadline.
29TH OCTOBER 1929: THE WALL STREET CRASH
This caused worldwide economic depression. The Weimar Republic did not know how to cope so they cut pay - sending Germany back into depression.
This caused disillusionment with Weimar, and saw the rise of extremist parties - communism and Nazism. Nazism was more popular as rich businessmen were frightened of communism.
THE NAZI PARTY BEGIN TO BE THE MOST POPULAR PARTY IN GOVERNMENT
The German People were not impressed with how Weimar dealt with the crisis, and turned to extremism.
Hitler's right hand man, Josef Goebbels, was a skilled propagandist and launched a strong propaganda campaign.
SEPTEMBER 1930: THE NAZIS WIN 107 SEATS IN THE REICHSTAG
JULY 1932: THE NAZIS BECOME THE MOST POWERFUL PARTY IN PARLIAMENT WITH 230 SEATS
1933 - ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT YEARS FOR HITLER
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. Chancellor generally has the most power in Germany, although the President can overrule the Chancellor's actions.
Reichstag Fire. To this day we are not 100% sure who started it, although at the time a Communist, van der Lubbe, was blamed. The Nazis blamed the Communists, and the Communists were banned from the Reichstag
Reichstag elections - The Nazis win 44% of the vote
Enabling Act - Hitler is enabled to make his own laws without the President
Germany becomes a one-party state and other parties are not allowed to exist
Organised boycott of Jewish businesses - no-one enters a Jewish business for one day, nationwide.
round-ups of tramps and beggars begin for forced sterilisation
INCREASE IN ANTI-JEW PROPAGANDA
30th JUNE: NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES
Hitler orders the SS (his bodyguards) to kill the leaders of the SA.Hitler's propaganda convinced the world that the SA were a threat to Germany and President Hindenburg publically thanked Hitler for saving Germany from a revolution. The army swore allegiance to Hitler, and so were no longer a powerful threat.
TWO WEEKS LATER: President Hindenburg, the last tie to the Weimar Republic, dies.
19TH AUGUST: HITLER ANNOUNCES HIMSELF FUHRER
'Law for the Protection of German blood and Honour'
- banned marriages between Jews and Aryans
- banned sex between Jews and Aryans
- made Jews subjects rather than citizens: loss of civil rights
JEWS ARE FORBIDDEN TO JOIN THE ARMY
1936: The Berlin Olympics sees a decrease in Anti-Jew propaganda
1937-1938: Anti- Jew laws
1937: Aryanisation of Businesses
1938: APRIL - Jews have to register property
JUNE - Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers are forbidden to have Aryan clients
OCTOBER - Jews are forced to have J on their passport
9th - 10th NOVEMBER: KRISTALLNACHT (Night of Broken Glass)
A French Jew murdered a German diplomat, and Kristallnacht was publicised as a retaliation. On the night of the 9th, Goebbels made a radio speech calling for vengeance. Germans obliged, and police were called - to observe, and only to intervene if a non-Jew was threatened.
Kristallnacht showed Hitler that the German people were willing to get involved with anti-Jew acts: it gave him the confidence to start his anti-Jew genocide with T4.
T4 IS ESTABLISHED:
T4 was a secret euthanasia programme where Jews, tramps and 'undesirables' were taken to be killed by specially trained doctors.
JEWS ARE GIVEN A CURFEW OF 8PM AND CAN BE EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES AT ANY TIME
SEPTEMBER 1939: WW2 STARTS
1940: Jews living in Poland are forced to live in ghettoes
1941: Hitler ends T4 in favour of death camps and concentration camps - secrecy is no longer an issue
Jews no longer receive soap and clothing rations, are forced to wear the Star of David on their clothing, and are forbidden to leave Nazi territory
1942: Schools are closed to Jewish children. Jews are forbidden to buy books, newspapers, magazines, eggs and fresh milk. Full-time evacuation of Jews to death camps starts.
1943: Berlin is declared 'free of Jews' and all remaining Jews are required to surrender to the Gestapo
1945: WW2 ends