Nazi Germany 1919-1945

Cards with the key dates and an explanation :) 

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 02-06-11 10:32

1919

TREATY OF VERSAILLES: following WWI. Germany were forced to sign and had no say in the terms. The Big 3: Georges Clemenceau; France, Woodrow Wilson; USA, David Lloyd-George; UK

G erman land lost: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Upper Silesia and West Prussia to Poland and demilitarised Rhineland

A rmed forces restrictions: Army: 100000 men; no conscription; 6 naval ships; 50000 men in the navy; no submarines; no planes; no armoured vehicles

R eparations: £6600 million to France, Belgium and Britain 

G uilt for the war; Article 231: Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war

LE ague of Nations: to maintain world peace. Germany not allowed to join until it had 'proved itself' 

HITLER JOINS THE DAP (GERMAN WORKERS PARTY)

Later, this would become the Nazi Party which Hitler would lead. 

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1919

WEIMAR REPUBLIC DEMOCRATICALLY VOTED INTO THE REICHSTAG

President Friedrich Ebert

Situated in Weimar as Berlin was deemed 'too great a risk' with uprisings 

The first ever democratic vote in Germany

Proportional representation: number of votes = number of seats in the Reichstag

Leaders seen as 'November Criminals' for signing the Treaty of Versailles 

SPARTACIST UPRISING

Led by Rosa Luxembourg

A group of Communists who didn't agree with democracy


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1920 & 1921

1920

KAPP'S PUTSCH, BERLIN

Led by Wolfgang Kapp

Freikorps - ex-soldiers who wanted Germany to be ruled by the army and hated communism and democracy in equal measure

1921

HITLER BECOMES LEADER OF THE DAP

HITLER CREATES THE STORMTROOPERS (SA)

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1922 & 1923

1922

GERMANY FAIL TO PAY REPARATIONS TO FRANCE

Germany are granted a moratorium (extension) of pay-date but fail once again, in August to pay reparations

1923

THE FRENCH INVADE THE RUHR

Germany can't pay back reparations, so France take the industrial Ruhr as payment. In response, President Ebert orders workers to go on strike.

HYPERINFLATION

As a result of the strike, the government has to pay the workers even though no money is being made from produce from the Ruhr. More money is printed by the government but this makes each note worth less than before and hyperinflation happens.


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1923

8TH NOVEMBER 1923: MUNICH PUTSCH

To gain from the ill-feeling throughout Germany as a result of hyperinflation and lack of confidence in the Weimar Republic, Hitler organises the Munich Putsch. 

The Putsch was originally organised by Hitler and 2 politicians - Kahr and Lossow. However, they backed out at the last minute.

Hitler and the SA marched on a Beer Hall in Munich where Kahr and Lossow were meeting and threatened them if they would not rebel. They agreed, and went home. 

The next day, Hitler marched on Munich to take power, but Kahr had called in police and reinforcements. Hitler was arrested and went to prison for a year. 

During his time in prison, Hitler realised he couldn't come to power by revolution so plotted his new strategy, as well as writing Mein Kampf. ('My Struggle')

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1924

THE DAWES PLAN

America lent Germany money so they could pay back French reparations, so in turn, France could pay back loans to America.

The Dawes Plan was dreamt up by Gustav Stresemann and Charles Dawes. Together, they got rid of Germany's old currency and replaced it with the Rentenmark and Germany got back on it's feet for a few years.

HITLER IS RELEASED FROM PRISON

1925: MEIN KAMPF IS PUBLISHED AND BECOMES A BESTSELLER

In Mein Kampf, Nazi ideology is outlined. 

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1926 - 1929

1926

GERMANY JOINS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

1929

YOUNG PLAN

Instead of once annual reparation payments, Germany paid two payments in order to somehow pay back the vast amount on money owed. It also increased the reparation deadline.

29TH OCTOBER 1929: THE WALL STREET CRASH

This caused worldwide economic depression. The Weimar Republic did not know how to cope so they cut pay - sending Germany back into depression. 

This caused disillusionment with Weimar, and saw the rise of extremist parties - communism and Nazism. Nazism was more popular as rich businessmen were frightened of communism. 


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1930-1932

THE NAZI PARTY BEGIN TO BE THE MOST POPULAR PARTY IN GOVERNMENT

The German People were not impressed with how Weimar dealt with the crisis, and turned to extremism. 

Hitler's right hand man, Josef Goebbels, was a skilled propagandist and launched a strong propaganda campaign. 

SEPTEMBER 1930: THE NAZIS WIN 107 SEATS IN THE REICHSTAG

JULY 1932: THE NAZIS BECOME THE MOST POWERFUL PARTY IN PARLIAMENT WITH 230 SEATS

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1933 - ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT YEARS FOR HITLER

JANUARY

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. Chancellor generally has the most power in Germany, although the President can overrule the Chancellor's actions.

27TH FEBRUARY

Reichstag Fire. To this day we are not 100% sure who started it, although at the time a Communist, van der Lubbe, was blamed. The Nazis blamed the Communists, and the Communists were banned from the Reichstag

MARCH

Reichstag elections - The Nazis win 44% of the vote

Enabling Act - Hitler is enabled to make his own laws without the President 

JULY

Germany becomes a one-party state and other parties are not allowed to exist

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1933 CONTINUED

APRIL

Organised boycott of Jewish businesses - no-one enters a Jewish business for one day, nationwide.

SEPTEMBER

round-ups of tramps and beggars begin for forced sterilisation

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1934

INCREASE IN ANTI-JEW PROPAGANDA

30th JUNE: NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES

Hitler orders the SS (his bodyguards) to kill the leaders of the SA.Hitler's propaganda convinced the world that the SA were a threat to Germany and President Hindenburg publically thanked Hitler for saving Germany from a revolution. The army swore allegiance to Hitler, and so were no longer a powerful threat. 

TWO WEEKS LATER: President Hindenburg, the last tie to the Weimar Republic, dies.

19TH AUGUST: HITLER ANNOUNCES HIMSELF FUHRER

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1935

NUREMBURG LAWS

'Law for the Protection of German blood and Honour'

  • banned marriages between Jews and Aryans
  • banned sex between Jews and Aryans
  • made Jews subjects rather than citizens: loss of civil rights

JEWS ARE FORBIDDEN TO JOIN THE ARMY

1936: The Berlin Olympics sees a decrease in Anti-Jew propaganda

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1937-1938: Anti- Jew laws

1937: Aryanisation of Businesses

1938: APRIL - Jews have to register property

JUNE - Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers are forbidden to have Aryan clients

OCTOBER - Jews are forced to have J on their passport

9th - 10th NOVEMBER: KRISTALLNACHT (Night of Broken Glass)

A French Jew murdered a German diplomat, and Kristallnacht was publicised as a retaliation. On the night of the 9th, Goebbels made a radio speech calling for vengeance. Germans obliged, and police were called - to observe, and only to intervene if a non-Jew was threatened. 

Kristallnacht showed Hitler that the German people were willing to get involved with anti-Jew acts: it gave him the confidence to start his anti-Jew genocide with T4. 

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1939

T4 IS ESTABLISHED:

T4 was a secret euthanasia programme where Jews, tramps and 'undesirables' were taken to be killed by specially trained doctors. 

JEWS ARE GIVEN A CURFEW OF 8PM AND CAN BE EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES AT ANY TIME

SEPTEMBER 1939: WW2 STARTS

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1940-1943

1940: Jews living in Poland are forced to live in ghettoes

1941: Hitler ends T4 in favour of death camps and concentration camps - secrecy   is no longer an issue

 Jews no longer receive soap and clothing rations, are forced to wear the Star  of David on their clothing, and are forbidden to leave Nazi territory

1942: Schools are closed to Jewish children. Jews are forbidden to buy books,  newspapers, magazines, eggs and fresh milk. Full-time evacuation of Jews to  death camps starts. 

1943: Berlin is declared 'free of Jews' and all remaining Jews are required to   surrender to the Gestapo

1945: WW2 ends

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Comments

Molly

That's a really cool way of remembering the ToV thanks! :)

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