Nazi Germany 1919-1939

Beginning of Nazi rule

1919 - DAP german workers party.     Hitler joined and bacame leader within 3 years (1921)

Became popular as of;

  • weak weimar rule, economic crisis' & unemployment
  • 'Work and Bread' scheme
  • Hitler = good, new leader
  • idea of a New Germany
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Munich Putsch

1923

Hitler taking advantage of weak Weimar Gov

Organised the SA to rebel and force a change/revolution. Taking control of army headquaters and Newspaper offices

8th Nov- Stomed a Beer Hall, demanding government leaders to revolotionise

9th Nov- police called, Hitler is arrested and 16 nazis killed

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Consolidation of Power

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Consolidation of Power

Reichstag Fire 1933                                                                                                                          Blamed on by communists-nazis used this to crush the opposition of KPD

Decree for the protection of people and state                                                                                      The suspension of all civil rights, freedom of speech and arrest and imprisonment without trial

March election 1933                                                                                                                                 Fear and intimidation                                                                                                                         Nazi's arrested and attacked communists without the fear of being punished

Enabling Act                                                                                                                                             Pass laws and run the country without asking the reichstag 

The night of long knives                                                                                                                                      SA was a potential oposiistional threat within the nazi party                                                                    Hitler used the ** to kill leaders of the SA

AFTER-Hindenburg dies, Hitler=Chancellor.                                                                                     Makes army swear and oath of loyalty to him.

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Comparison to weimar

Weimar

  • democracy
  • parties
  • proportional reprsentation
  • article 48
  • freedom
  • coalllitons

Nazi

  • 1-party state
  • hitler=ultimate power
  • dismantled freedom
  • Decree for prot of people and state
  • enabling act
  • gestapo & **
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Nazi Economy

Weimar=reperations, treaty of v, hyperinfaltion, dawes plan

Nazi

  • solve unemployment - work and bread
  • Four year plan--preapre economy in 4 years for war                                                                 However; Germany=still dependent on foreign imports                                                                           -               never met an productional autarky targets ie oil
  • New plan--aim to get out of great depression by cutting governement and welfare spending
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Standard of living

  • Full employment by 1938
  • Real wages increased
  • 900million spent on improving working conditions
  • Strength through joy--- all workers, non-working time was supervised with afterwork activities, holidays and lesiure--making workers greatful for the nazi state
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Propoganda

Radio

  • Most important medium
  • Hitler=great public speaker
  • Nazi had control
  • 1939=70% owned a radio

Newspapers

  • number of newspapers decreased 1933-1939
  • nazis ran only new agency 

Olyimpics

  • showcase ofnazi success and superiority
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Culture-Women & Educaton

Women

  • domestic work
  • child bearers
  • no social life
  • could only marry pure germans
  • Mother's cross--awarded for having children
  • Marriage loans--loans to married couples
  • Divorce law-men could divorce wife if she couldnt have children

Education-'key to the future'

  • textbooks rewritten
  • jewish teachers sacked
  • children taught to spy and tell on any non-germans
  • Hitler youth and schools--lessons began and ended with nazi salute, prepared students for future nazi roles.
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Protestant & Catholic church

Protestant church

  • majority of Germans=protestant
  • Protestant youth mixed with hitler youth--largely opposed
  • 1937-All church leaders sent to concernation camps

Catholic church

  • minority of germans=catholic
  • concordat--an agreeement for catholics to not oppose the nazi party--was hoped catholics would run wothout nazi interference
  • catholics were allowed to still run their groups, but childrenwere pressured into joining the hitler youth and in 1936 it was compulsary.
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Nazi opposition

White rose-

university students, with leaflets opposing the regime and nazi policies,                            founders excecuted

Army

whem the war turned against Germnay..army officers began to plot against hitler and his party

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Ethnic minorities and anti-Semitism

Kristallnacht-1938

A jew shot a german offical within its embassy                                                                          Gobells used this as an opportunity to organise anti-jewish demonstrations with...attacks on jewish buisnesses, property & synagoges.                                                                                       100 killed and 20,000 sent to concernatration camps

Nuremburg Laws

  • Jews banned being German citizens
  • 'protection of german blood'-banned marriage and sexual relations between 'pure' germans and jews

1938-1/2 jewish population left                                                                                                         1939-jews forced into ghetto's                                                                                                         1941 onwards- 'Final Soloution'--forced wear star of david, emigration banned, mass gassings   2 million jews killed

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