The Inter-War Years 1919-1939 Revision Notes

Revision Notes- Hope they help :)

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History Revision Notes
Treaty of Versailles Unit 1
The Big Three
1. Georges Clemenceau (France) ­ Thought Germany should be crushed, made as
weak as possible. Thought Germany should pay the entire cost of the war France
had suffered during WWI over 2/3 of army had been killed. Wanted revenge for
when France had been defeated in 1871.
2. David Lloyd George (Britain) ­ Germany should not be treated too badle or would
want revenge, wanted them to be strong enough to trade with Britain in future,
Germany should lose their colonies and navy British public wanted Germany to be
crushed as much as possible
3. Woodrow Wilson (USA) ­ Germany should be punished but not too harsly
because then she would want revenge in future. Came up with 14 points which
included LoN.
Treaty of Versailles
B Blamed 100%Clause 231 of Treaty
R Reparations £6.6 Billionpaid in annual instalments
A Army + Navy 100'000 soldiers, 6 battleships, Rhineland demilitarized, No
AirForce and No conscription
T Territory Lost 13% of it's land AlsaceLorraine was returned to FrancePolish
Corridor given to Poland, The Saarland was taken over by LoN
Was the Treaty of Versailles Fair or Not?
1. Fair
Reparations only took up 2% of what Germany spent each year
Germany had forced a harsher treaty on Russia in 1918
If Germany had of won they would have been just as harsh if not
Armistice Germany had agreed to all the Army and territory
restrictions and the reparations
2. Not Fair
Germany had not been allowed into the Paris Peace Conference
The Treaty would just start another war
Germany was already broke after the war and would not be able to pay
the reparations back
It was the Kaiser not the Citizens they were paying for his mistake
GB and France threatened Germany with war if she did not sign it she
had no choice as she was too weak for war
Affect the Treaty had on Germany
November Criminals extremists tried to overthrow government
Invasion of the Ruhr French took what they were owed
HyperInflation value of money went down as they printed more of it e.g. bread
cost 20 billion marks
Rise of Hitler People voted Hitler to power as he wanted revenge!

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Other Treaties
St Germain (Austria, 1919) Split from Hungary, Army only allowed to be 30,000,
Banned from uniting with Germany, Parts taken from them to form Czechoslovakia.
Impact Transport, Economy and Trade got weakerno longer a main country.
Trianon (Hungary, 1920) Transylvania given to Romania, 3,000,00 Hungarians
end up living in new countries, supposed to pay reparations (so poornever did)
Impact People were unhappy, in 1919 communists took over and 1920 military
took over.…read more

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Bulgaria, 1925 Greece invaded Bulgaria after some of her soldiers
were killed. Greece had to pay compensationbut complained that
smaller countries were treated unfairly as Italy didn't have to pay in
2. Successes
Aaland Islands, 1921 ­ Sweden accepted the Leagues ruling over the
Aaland Islands and agreed they belonged to Finland.
Upper Silesia, 1921 ­ League reached a sensible compromise and gave
the Germans and Poles a share of what they wanted.…read more

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Condemned Japan's actions and ordered the withdrawal of Japanese troops. The
Japanese government agreed but the army refused.
Appointed the Lytton Commission to investigate the crisis. This took over a year to
report, by which time the invasion and occupation was complete. The Commission
found Japan guilty of forcibly seizing part of China's territory.
Accepted the Lytton Report and instructed all of its members not to recognize
Manchukuo. It invited Japan to hand Manchuria back to China.…read more

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Reasons for Failure of the League
1. Selfinterest of leading members
2. USA was not in it
3. The great depression
4. Economic Sanctions did not work
5. No army
6. Treaties it had to uphold were seen as unfair
7. WWI
8.…read more

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AntiComintern Pact (1936) ­ Official alliance between Germany and
Japan committed both sides to fighting the USSR
Pact of Steel (1939) ­ between Germany and Italy (Japan joined in
1940) all sided were a full military alliance together
7.…read more

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Germany what
they wanted Hitler invaded in October
Czechoslovakia 1939 15th March Hitler marched
troops into rest of Czechoslovakia No resistance from
Czechs and GB and France did nothing. GB and France
told Hitler if he invaded Poland they would declare war
Appeasement officially ended.…read more


Miss E

Excellent set of notes going over the three key areas, peace treaties, the League of Nations and the build up to WWII. Especially good section on the causes of WWII where the author has looked at the actions of Hitler but also other factors like the Great Depression. A must read for this topic.

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