Modern World History, Germany 1919-1939

Notes on all the events during 1919-1939

anyone who needs help revising for this topic

HideShow resource information
Preview of Modern World History, Germany 1919-1939

First 532 words of the document:

Timeline of International Relations 1918 ­ 1939
11th November 1918 ­ Armistice ends WWI
January 1919 ­ Spartacist Rising
In Jan 1919, 50,000 Spartacists rebelled in Berlin, led by the Communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht. In
1919, communist workers' councils seized power all over Germany, and a Communist People's Government took
power in Bavar
28TH June 1919 - Signing of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany lost:
10% of Land (Rhineland ­ demilitarised zone) (Alsace ­ Lorraine to France) (The Saar ­ Controlled by the League
of Nations) (Posen and Silesia to Poland) (North Schleswig to Denmark) (Memel to Lithuania) (Eupen ­ Malmedy to
Belgium) (The Ruhr)
12.5% of its population
16% of its coalfields
50% of its iron and steel industry
All of its colonies (Togoland, Cameroon, German South West Africa, German East Africa, New Guinea, Samoa,
The Marshall, Mariana and Caroline Islands)
Military restrictions (100,000 soldiers only, No tanks, No planes, no U-boats, no armoured vehicles and only
six battleships)
Germany's reparation bill was to pay £6.6 billion (6,600,000,000) in war damages.
The war guilt clause: Germany must accept responsibility for starting the War.
David Lloyd George wanted Germany to lose their Navy and colonies but not to be punished too harshly because he
believed in future trade was important and to be preserved.
George Clemenceau had felt threatened by Germany and had suffered terribly in the war therefore he wanted Germany
to be left weak so there was no threat in the future.
Woodrow Wilson had not suffered as much as the other allies and desired a more democratic Germany which would
not seek revenge; he believed in international cooperation to settle further disputes and publicised 14 points although
some were unrealistic.
The Fourteen Points:
14 ­ League of Nations to be set up
5 ­ Colonies to have a say in their own future
2 ­ Free access to the seas in peace time or war time
6 ­ German troops to leave Russia
7 ­ Independence for Belgium
The Treaty was made at a compromise although it was a very muddled treaty and left Germany thirsty for revenge but
not enough to leave them incapable of that revenge.
January 1920 ­ Formation of the League of Nations
Intended to safeguard peace through collective security and cooperation
USA voted not to join (Germany and Russia were not welcome)
Main powers were Britain, Japan, Italy and France
Main Aims: Discourage aggression (prevent war), encourage cooperation (e.g. trade and international cooperation),
Disarmament and to improve the living and working conditions for all the people of the world (Lebensraum).
Sanctions: Moral (use of shame), Economic sanctions (trade embargoes), violence (League could not do this)
Weaknesses: USA did not join, had no power to enforce its rulings (army), complex structure (internal disagreements),
dependant on unanimous decisions and countries were more concerned with their own problems.
Structure of the League of Nations:
General Assembly Council Permanent Council of Secretariat
International Justice
Decided General Policy Dealt with wars and Solved arguments if Did the paper-work
and Budget emergencies asked by both sides

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

One representative for 4 permanent members 15 judges Secretaries, translators,
each member of state, (main powers) Others etc
42 to start, later on 55. rotated
Geneva Geneva The Hague Everywhere
(Switzerland) (Switzerland) (Holland)
In addition to its four main parts, the League had various commissions to deal with the likes of health and slavery and
also the International Labour Organisation.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

There are lots of almost amusing stories about people's wages and examples of just how fast inflation pushed prices
up during the crisis:
People collected their wages in suitcases.
One person, who left their suitcase unattended, found that a thief had stolen the suitcase but not the money.
One boy, who was sent to buy two bread buns, stopped to play football and by the time he got to the shop,
the price had gone up, so he could only afford to buy one.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Its formal name is General Treaty for the Renunciation of War. It was counted as an attempt to limitation of arms, yet
the period it witnessed caused a stronger realist approach in international relations.
1929 ­ Young Plan (reparations reduced)
The Young Plan is an arrangement to reduce reparations which will boost the German economy as they wouldn't have
to pay nor borrow as much so America is repaid. Similarly, Germany is on good terms between nations.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Both Scleicher and Papen do not trust Hitler and do not agree with his extremist views. Their rivalry helped Hitler gain
power because Papen wanted to help Hitler overthrow Scleicher as instead of the two men getting Chancellor, Hitler
would be best suited.
von Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler by saying how he was unpopular which could strike a movement
against him and NAZI policies could be restricted. Hitler's position, however, was weak.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Popular Front won national elections and Azana was appointed president of
February 1936
March 1936 The right wing Falange Party was banned.
March to May
Street riots; strikes and general anarchy in some parts of Spain.
Military uprisings in Spanish Morocco and some parts of mainland Spain. The
government dissolves the regular army. July 19th,Franco arrives to take
July 1936 command of the army in Morocco.
Hitler agreed to help out the Nationalists. Stalin agreed to help the Republicans.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

In April 1937, Guernica was the first city to be deliberately targeted for aerial bombing. Guernica was the ancient capital
of the Basques - a group who had withstood the advances of the army since the Spanish Civil War begun in 1936. The
region's resilient stand was punished by Franco when he allowed the unprotected city to be bombed by Hitler's air
force.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Appoints judges to the courts
Controls the armed Forces
Appoints Government Ministers
Elect Reichstag Parliament
German People
The Reichstag was weak under the Weimar Constitution because there were many different political parties and no
group could take control. The system of voting was under proportional representation where each party had a certain
amount of seats in parliament.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

SDD ­ Social Democratic Party
DDP ­ Democratic party
Z ­ Catholic Centre Party
DVP ­ People's party
DNVP ­ Nation People's Party
NSDAP ­ National Socialists ­ NAZI's
Revolts against the Weimar:
Dateline JANUARY 1919 MARCH 1920
Leaders KARL LIEBKECHT DR.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Deal with the SA Leadership
Retain the loyalty of the SA
Win the trust and support of the army generals
Expand the Army
Hitler's solutions:
In August 1934 Hitler has 100 SA leaders and political rivals killed in the Night of the Long Knives ­ executed by
the SS
The SA were persuaded that their leaders were planning to betray them ­ Hitler was still loyal
Hitler merged the SA into the army, increasing its size and getting the generals on his side.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »