Germany 1919-1939

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  • Germany, 1919-1934
    • Early Weimar republic, 1919-23
      • impacts of WW1
        • Germany was depressed and humilited
        • severe food shortages
          • bread and turnips, added sawdust to flour
        • Flu epidemic killing thousands
        • 600,000 widows and 2 million fartherless kids
        • 1/3 state budget on war pensions
        • industrial production 2/3 of 1913
        • Army felted stabbed in the back
      • how was the Weimer Republic born?
        • Naval mutiny in Kiel north Germany
        • this triggered other revolts
        • Kaiser abdicated on 9th November 1918
        • Ebert led the new socialist state and signed armastice
        • made plans to draw up new constitution
      • Germans reaction to new republic
        • Ebert opposed by right wing officials
          • wanted return of the Kaiser
          • Kaisers former advisers still in post
            • made it hard for Ebert
          • Stabbed in the back
        • Ebert also opposed by left wing officials.
          • wanted Communist uprising like in Russia in 1917
        • free election help January 1919, socialists won
          • Ebert became first president of the constitution
      • Main features of the Weimer constituiton
      • Threats from left wing
      • Threats from right wing
      • Effect of treaty of Versailles
      • Events of the crisis year 1923
      • How did the Weimer republic survive
    • Gustav Stresemann and the era of fulfilment 1924-29
      • who was Stresemann
        • German Chancellor for a few months in 1923
        • leading member of Government from 1923-29
        • highly skilled right wing politician
        • instituted the policy of fulfilment
          • complying with treaty of Versailles to be re accepted into international community
      • Stresemann's economic achievments
        • Ended hyper inlfation
          • Replaced mark with Rentenmark
        • 1924 Dawes plan
          • reduced Germany's reparations and over a longer period
        • 1929 Young plan
          • further reduced reperations
            • Afters dawes and Young plan, reparation down from 6.6 bil to 2 billion
        • by 1928, industry back up to pre war levels
        • However
          • loans could be called in at short notice
          • peasants did not fare well, where as business owners did
        • Called of passive resistance in the Rurh
          • made French leave
      • Cultural achievements of stresemann
        • Writers, poets and artists flourished
        • Bauhaus architecture flourished
        • Golden age for German cinema
        • clubs and night-life flourished
          • 900 dance bands in Berlin
    • Hitler's rise to power
      • what were Nazis doing during Stresemann era
        • Hilter spent 9 months in prison and Wrote Mien Kampf
        • Get into power through Democracy
          • 'hold our noses and enter the reichstag'
        • Recruitment drive
          • 100,000 members by 1928
            • Created network of local Nazi parties
        • Enlarged SA in 1925- Ex service men
        • Set up SS, similer to SA, but fanatically loyal to Hitler
        • used propaganda to spread message
          • Posters, leaflets, films, radio, rallies
            • Joseph Goebbels took charge of this
      • who voted for the Nazis 1924-29
        • wealthy who were afraid of communism
        • some peasant farmers - radically pure
        • 1928, 3% of votes

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