Mussolini consolidated power 1922-1926

Mussolini consolidated power 1922-26

March on Rome -October 1922- King Victor Emmanuel III gave Mussolini PM position 1922- Violence - MVSN (30,000 men) and OVRA- controlled local government with Podestas- local self-government abolished 

Grand Council of Fascists- December 1922- they discussed policy proposals, propaganda and appointments to the party- it strenghtened mussolini's leadership position

Needed a majority in Parliament- Acerbo law 1924 (introduced July 1923) 

Parliament granted him emergency power for one year to deal with the countries problems- November 1922- became minister of foreign affairs (by 1939 Parliament abolished itself) 

Elite support- the Church - 1923 Popolari dropped from the governing coalition- allowed Rs to be taught in schools, concessions made with the church- increased priest salaries

Propaganda- ERR set up (rural radio agency) - radio and cinema used as a tool for fascists propaganda- no freedom of the press- 

Fascist’s failing to obtain representation in the Chamber of Deputies with only 7% and a lack of support,

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Mussolini consolidated power 1926

Officially became a dictatorship- 1926 - Mussolini determined to expand the state and create a nation of fascists - he can now make laws by issuing decrees- king is not willing to dismiss him (shown though the Mattoti crisis) - encourgaed a cult of Mussolini portraying him at the DUCE. -  no political opposition, one-party state, socialists under attack- 1928 King lost his right to select a PM

Propaganda - 1926 opposition papers were crushed- 40,00 radio in italy by mid-1920's- radio given into rural areas (ERR)-  Mussolini determined to use propaganda to build up support his regime and defer his opposition- Newspapers stressed his violence and suggested that the duce was infallible 

The church- Lateran Pact/The Concordat 1929- they officially ended the conflict between Church and Italy: (it referred to what the Church had jurisdiction over but meant the church became associated with fascist violence) 

> religious education made compulsory in schools 

>pope received financial compensation of £30 million for surrendering his claim to Rome 

> Pope promised to shut down Catholic political party (no involvement in politics) 

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Matteoti Crisis 1924

Socialists Giacomo Matteotti produced evidence detailing fascist violence and terror during the election campaign 

June 1924- Fascists had abducted Matteoti and stabbed him to death in broad daylight 

pro-Mussolini liberals believed the fascists had gone too far- mussolini denied al knowledge of the crime - public opinio  began to turn against him and crowds protested in the streets 

Opposition walked out in parliament and set up their own small parliament 

many socialists, communists and dissident Popolari hoped their Aventine secession ( withdrawals of 150 PSI deputies from the Chamber of Deputies) would encourage the king to dismiss Mussolini - the king feared sacking Mussolini would create a strengthen the revolutionary left and might lead to a civil war. 

Mussolini put blackshirts in the streets to deter opposition but distanced himself from the crime and ordered the arrests of fascist suspects 

Giolitti and Salandra still supported Mussolini's premiership 

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Mussolini economic aims

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Domestic policies in italy

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Divisions within the Fascist party

- PNF not united, coheret moveet 

squadristi demanded the continuance of violent raids, ex-socialists wanted the reoranisation of industry 

nationaists desire the revision of WW1 peace settlement 

conservatives- hoped for the restoration of loaw and order amd normality 

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