Mussolini's consolidation and dictatorship 1922-1926

  • Created by: Jennifer
  • Created on: 08-04-18 09:14
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  • Mussolini's consolidation of power
    • Parliamentary compromise & coercion
      • Mussolini had two main threats the squads and his lack of parliamentary support
      • appointments
        • He appoints himself as foreign minister and minister of interior
        • Alberto De'Stefani as minsiter of finace
          • This reassured industrialists as he was orthodox
      • He increased clerical pay and put crucifixes in schools
        • Thus, the Vatican city support him and no longer backed the PPI leading to its leader Struizo resigning
      • His Maiden speech on the 16th of November 1922
        • He offered to work with Parliament if they gave him emergency powers (passed 306 to 116) as he threaten violence of 300,000 blackshirtd
          • The powers meant that he could not be removed by parliament and that he had the power to govern and raise taxes without consent
      • This made the merge of the ANI and PNF easier in February 1923
    • Controlling the PNF
      • Mussolini had two main threats the squads and his lack of parliamentary support
      • Formed the Fascist Grand Council in December 1922 which was a rival to the cabinet
        • Made up of key fascists of Italo Blalbo and Emilio De Bano this centralized power over the PNF
      • Formed the MVSN organizing the squads into a party based paramilitary force putting an end to fascist violence
        • With 300,000 members who pledged alliance to Mussolini
        • funded by public so they became a force within government
      • Had 783,00 members by the end of 1922
    • The Acerbo law & the 1924 election
      • The Acerbo law was that the party that gained over 25% of the vote would gain 2/3 of the seats
        • Which would give the PNF a majority as they currently only had 35 seats
        • It passed in July 1923 along with the national list
          • The national list was the list of members for the PR system - it convinced many liberals to join with the fascists
            • this angered the radical fascists and so there was increased Blackshirt violence in Tuscany and Umbria
      • In the 1924 elections the fascists got 66.3% of the vote gaining 374 seats with a turnout of 64% of 7.5 million
        • This was achieved due to ballot rigging, weak opposition and the national list were 150/350 were not members of the PNF
        • THE PSI won 5.9% and the PCI won 3.8% with 2.2 million votes in Milan and Turin
          • This shows that dispite Mussolini claims there was still a strong socialist presense
    • The Matteoti Crisis (1924)
      • On the 30th of May 1924 Matteoti made a 2 hour speech on fascist corruption saying that he had documents to prove it
        • He was murdered then found on the 12th of June and Amergio Dumi (facist) was arrested as a witness had seen the number plate of the car
          • It was unclear if Mussolini had ordered it but his involvement was obvious
      • Mussolini had to make concessions with the elites to stay in gov.
        • Luigi Ferzani was made minister of interior
          • They were both nationalists and so unhelp the constituion
        • Alfedo Rocco as minister of Justice
          • They were both nationalists and so unhelp the constituion
        • He banned all the violence including the squads otherwise you would be kicked out of the party
      • The Aventine secession formed on the 12th of June on Aventine hill with 100 anti-fascists deputies claiming they were the lawful government
        • This backfired as it allowed for Mussolini to pass legislation as they could not oppose him
          • on the 3rd of January 1925 he announces that he is the ruler of the new Italian dictatorship
            • Establishing a dictatorship 1924-1926
              • He gained support from the army by increasing pay and appointing the conservative Pietro Badogolio as chief general of staff
              • on the 12th of January 1925 he announces a new cabinet
                • Made up of only fascist
                • Mussolini gave himself the role of prime minister , minister of foreign affairs , war , navy and aviation
                • Farinacci was made PNF secretary in February
                  • He purged the party of all that opposed Mussolini
                  • Increased party membership from 600,00 to 938,000
              • On the 4th of August 1925 Mussolini claimed that Tito Zanoni had tried to assassinate him
                • Tito's party the PSU were banned
                • Allowed he state to introduced a new press law which meant news had to be approved by the state
                • The government decreed a law that the government had the power to sack any empolyee if their actions were considered hostile to the PNF
              • 2nd of October 1925 - Palazzo Vadani Pacti
                • banned all trade unions but fascist unions
                  • In favour of industrialists
              • In December 1925 the PM was change to the duce of fascism and the vote of no confidence was removed
                • In January Mussolini was granted rule by decree
                  • On the 31st of October er 1926 following n assassination attempt all political parties but the PNF were banned
              • The special tribunal of the defense of the state was set up - where anti-fascists with no right to appeal
                • All communist deputies and members of the Aventie were removed from gov. and its leader Antonio Gramsci was arrested

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