Memory Stores Studies List

List of memory studies, including study and evaluation

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Bahrick (1975) Duration of LTM


Difficult to control factors affecting memories of individuals eg. wheather people were still in contact with each other after school.

Memory duration could be affected by old age


High ecological validity - real test of memories in people's lives

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Miller Capacity of LTM

Low ecological validity as it was done as a lab experiment and the test was not relevent to real life. No-one would ask to use a serial digit span

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Baddeley et al (1975) STM Capacity word-length eff

Expands on Miller's findings - particularly when Baddley controled 'familiarity' of words. Initial experiment - people recalled short words (wit, sum) because they were more familiar

Excellent lab condition control - presented words on screen - meant it was word leanght, not reading speed that changed

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Peterson and Peterson (1959) Duration of STM

Low ecological validity - people don't have to remember nonsense trigrams in real life. Indifference from previous caused poor recall

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Baddeley (1966) Encoding in STM

55% acoustically similar words remembered, 75% dissimilar

Low ecological validity. Evidence in other studies that STM may use other forms of encoding

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Baddeley Encoding in LTM

Recall worse for semantically similar words (30% less accurate than senantically dissimilar) concludes LTM is stored semantically

Only LTM words tested (semantic memory) Other types of LTM: memory for past events (episodic) or how to ride a bike (procedural) might use different types of encoding

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