Life under the Restored Monarchs
The Austrians were reactionary which meant the favoured the return to previous political conditions (pre-napoleonic).
Tuscany- Ferdinand III improved education, universities and spent more money on educating girls. He also expanded health facilities. He, unlike any other, allowed freedom of expression. The jounal, Antologia, was founded in 1821 and one of its writers was Giuseppe Mazzini. In peoples opinions Florence became the political capital of Italy.
Parma- Duchess Marie-Louise got rid of the Code Napoleon but replaced it with a similar one.
Piedmont- Victor Emmanuel dismissed the middle class politicians appointed in the napoleonic era and replaced them with the members of old noble families. Former 18 century laws were reinstated. Control of education handed back to RC.
Modena- Returned Habsburg Duke Francis IV in 1815 who like Victor Emmanuel wanted to return it as much as possible to the pre napoleonic era. He hated liberals, but also disliked Austria.
The Papal States- The popes (zealots) established a tight hold on government, education, culture and politics in the Papal States. All central and local government was in the hands of priests. Code Napoleon was abolished and censorship was imposed with all opposition repressed. Religious persecution increased and toleration of any other belief was forbidden. Jews were harshly treated with their children essentially being kidnapped to be brought up as Catholics. Developments were hindered and the Papal states were known as being the most backward state of all.
Naples- King Ferdinand I returned. The following year he cancelled the Sicilian constitution of 1812 which allowed people to have a say in government. He later declared that Sicily would be governed as a part of the Kingdom of Naples. His rule was cruel and oppresive. Liberals and radicals called for a constitution but were refused by the king.