issues resulting from urban change (urban growth/decline)

the social, economic, environmental and political issues involving urban change

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economic

  • rising cost of living
  • widening gap between rich and poor (polarization)
  • changes in job opprtunities
  • unemployment
  • growing demmand for commercial services
  • increased consumption of resources
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social

  • housing shortages
  • informal housing
  • high immigration rates
  • strain on services
  • increasing crime
  • health services decreasing
  • increasing segrigation
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environmental

  • hazards created by humans
  • increased pollution (air, noise, water)
  • rising densities with expanding urban area
  • traffic conjestion
  • eroison of open spaces
  • increased volumes of traffic
  • deriliction and regeneration
  • change in climate- urban areas are warmer than rural areas
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political

  • planning applications and dispute over land
  • managing increase in pollution such as introducing conjestion charge zones
  • need of investment into declining areas to encorage regeneration
  • civil unrest
  • olitical corruption
  • exploitation
  • immigration and emigration
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