What are the characteristics of urban areas?
Urban areas have a variety of functions, processes and distinct patterns of land use.
The patterns of land use are influenced by a number of factors and these vary from place to place.
• the range of functions found in urban areas including industrial, commercial, residential and recreational;
• the land-use patterns that develop in urban areas;
• the social, economic, political and environmental factors that influence land-use patterns
What are the social and economic issues associated
Urban growth and decay can lead to a variety of social and economic issues in urban areas.
The study of two contrasting urban areas to illustrate:
• why socio-economic deprivation occurs;
• the characteristics of urban deprivation, including economic wellbeing, housing and environmental quality and social conditions;
• the social and economic differences existing in urban areas;
• the problems of managing the growing demand for services such as health, education and public transport.
What are the environmental issues associated with
Urban change can put increasing pressures on the environment including:
• traffic congestion;
• atmospheric pollution;
• water pollution;
• urban dereliction;
• waste disposal.
The study of two contrasting urban areas, including practical research or out-of-classroom work – fieldwork, to illustrate:
• the problems of traffic congestion and atmospheric pollution and their management;
• the problems of managing increasing volumes of waste;
• the problems of managing the growing demand for services such as water and sanitation;
• how urban change can create areas of dereliction.
How can urban areas be managed to ensure sustainab
Sustainable management requires an understanding of the dynamic nature of social/economic/political processes in urban areas.
The sustainable development of urban areas requires a careful balance of socio-economic and environmental planning.
The study of at least one example to illustrate how planning and management practices are enabling urban areas to become increasingly sustainable.
• Urban landscapes
- consist of a variety of interdependent and interconnected activities and processes
- change over time and space and will vary dependent on their location
- have certain characteristics and result from a variety of factors
• Change in urban areas will produce a variety of impacts
• Urban change results in opportunities and challenges
• Can urban development be sustainable?