Managing Urban Change

  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 19-05-13 15:31
How do most national censuses distinguish between urban and rural areas?
On the basis of population sizes.
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What does the size threshold of urban vary from ?
Depends on the country but is usually between 2000 and 10,000
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What can the term urban be used to describe?
Places nad people
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What are the economical characteristics of an urban environment?
Employment mainly in secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors, provision of commercial and social services for local residents and those in tributary area
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What are the characteristics of people in an urban environment?
High population densities, distinctive lifestyles, values and behaviour, diversity in terms of wealth, age and ethnicity and raised stress levels
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What are the characteristics of the environment in an urban area?
Exclusion of natural world, dominance of buildings and transport networks, high levels of environmental pollution (water, air, sound, light and visual) alongside congestion due to high building densities, faster pace of living
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What is urbanisation?
Process by which places nad people become more urba.
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What is the most obvious outcome of urbanisation?
Rise in the percentage of population living in towns and cities: percentage urban
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What is rural-urban migration?
An element of the urbanisation process, the movement of people from the countryside into towns and cities.
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What are the aspects of urbanisation?
Shift in economy, change in population distribution, shift in size and character, change in way of life and spread of built up area
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Urbanisation - shift in economy
Emphasis moves from farming and primary sector to manufacturing and provision of wide range of services
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Urbanisation - Change in distribution of population
More and more concentrated in the growing towns and cities, rural-urban migration is a major contributor here
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Urbanisation - change in way of life
Not just a change in occupation but also in lifestyles, values, codes of behaviour and social institutions
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Urbanisation - changes in the size and character of settlements
Some settlements grow more quickly than others, differential growth in settlement network undergoing urbanisation will see some villages grow into towns, some towns into cities etc
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Urbanisation - spread of built up area
Natural environment is progressively eroded or lost beneath man-made environment
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What global process is closely connected to urbanisation?
Development, generating urbanisation
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What is the first stage of the urbanisation pathway?
LDC - Rural society phase, low levels of urbanisation, largely rural population of subsistence farmers
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What is the second stage of the urbanisation pathway?
EDCs - Economic take off, rapid rural-urban migration leads to accelerating rate of urbanisation
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What is the third stage of the urbanisation pathway?
RICs - Maturing economy, rates of urbanisation continue to rise but then slacken off, suburban spread
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What is the fourth stage of the urbanisation pathway?
NICs - Mass urbanisation in most developed nations, rate of urbanisation levels off and percentage urban peaks. Most people live in towns
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What is the last stage of the urbanisation pathway?
MEDCs - in advanced economies, decentralisation sets in as people move to smaller towns and semi-rural areas. Urbanism continues to spread
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What is the order of the urbanisation pathway?
LDC to EDC to RIC to NIC to MEDC
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What is suggested will happen to the urbanisation pathway in the future?
Suggestion that counter urbanisation may occur - some businesses and people choosing to move into smaller cities and towns (diffusing urban growth down urban hierarchy_ and some level of counterurbanisation into rural areas (though retain urban job)
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What is urban change?
Most obvious is the growth of urban areas, the converse - rural decay- rarely effects whole towns.
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Urban change: rural-urban shift
Shift in where the majority of the world's people live and work. 1800 only 5% of world's population lived and worked in towns and cities; now roughly 50% of population urban and by 2030 is expected to rise to 60%.
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Urban change: MEDC-LEDC shift
Geographical shift. One hundred years ago the fastest rates of urbanisation in MEDCs now in LEDCs - greatest majority of world's urban population already lives in Developing World. Shift is forecast to continue well past 2030. %urban MEDC level off
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Urban change: Shift in size
Rapidly increasing urban population is giving rise to larger urban areas, with urban agglomerations forming. Large cities are not only growing in size but changing distribution with majority in Developing World, particularly south and south-east Asi
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What is a mega-city?
A city or urban agglomeration with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants
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What are world cities?
One of the world's leading cities, major node in complex networks created by economic globalisation. Influence of world cities linked primarily to their provision of financial and provision cities
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What is an example a world city?
New York/Tokyo
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What is the main land use of an urban area?
Residence, in many areas accounting for well over half of the built up area
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What used to be a core function of most MEDC cities and why has this changed?
Manufacturing, changed by deindustrialisation and the global shift towards manufacturing to NICs and RICs
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What are the most lucrative economic acitivities?
Today those that fall within the tertiary and quaternary sectors. Provision of a range of services generates many jobs and capital. Within quaternary function, handling of information, R&D etc can bring great prosperity
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In what way can not all functions of an urban area be strictly economic?
Recreation - while sports stadiums, swimming pools, etc may represent a commercial side to recreation there are also patches of open space which are free to use.
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What is the Central Business District?
Commercial centre of a town or city
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What is the edge city?
Feature of suburban intensification where parts of the suburbs become more city-like through agglomeration of offices, factories and large shopping complexes
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What is a ghetto?
Residential area largely occupied by one ethnic or cultural minority group
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What is a sink estate?
An area of poor housing occupied by disadvantaged households
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What is a gated community?
Area of wealthy private housing with a secure perimeter wall or fence with controlled entrances for residents, visitors and their cars
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What happens to the general age of the urban area as moves away from the centre and why?
Decreases as towns and cities grow outwards from a historical nucleus
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What happens to the overall density of development as move away from centre?
Decreases as a town or city grows its fringe expands allowing access to more rural space for further spread of built up area. More space for expansion often leads to lower densities of development
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What is the transition from the core to suburban ring called when it shows up as a fairly distinctive zone?
The inner ring
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What is a factor guiding the sorting of different land uses?
Urban land value surface - the spatial variations in land values or rent created by the bidding process
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In what way can the physical geography of an area impact upon land use patterns?
Steep slopes, flood plains, rivers and waterfront can make an influence
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In what way can the past impact on land use patterns?
Historical factors of heritage and the fact that historical areas leave a mark on the present (inertia)
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What are urban managers (a group which has become particularly significant recently)?
Professionals who distribute and control resources within an urban area
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What processes are part of urbanisation?
Begins with agglomeration (clustering of people and activities around location) then suburbanisation as people move to areas of lower density. Accumulation of rural-urban migrants at margins - urban regeneration as decide to redevelop brownfield site
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What can be seen as forms of reurbanisation (movement of people and activities back into the central and inner parts of a town or city)?
Regeneration and the reimaging that goes with it.
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What is suburban intensification?
The process where suburbs become more urban as a result of increasing densities, introduce non-residential activities such as offices and develop green spaces.
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What processes are centralising in character?
Agglomeration, regeneration and suburban intensification. Help to maintain compactness of rban area.
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What process is largely decentralising?
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What are the internal processes which generate change and impact on the urban pattern?
Filtering and gentrification, exclusion, reimaging and regeneration
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What is filtering?
Involves housing passing down to lower-income groups
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What is gentrification?
Residential areas improved and upgraded
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What is exclusion?
Involves certain groups of people being barred from living in certain areas, usually due to ethnicity and level of income. E.g. ghetto and the gated community.
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What triggers agglomeration?
Growth trigged by some non-agricultural function. Population growth from rural-urban migration and from natural increase. Original function attracts other activities, generating areas of new housing with wide range conditions.Spatial sorting of group
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What triggers suburbanisation?
Transport developments, such as rail/tram/bus/car, allow for loosening of urban development. People move from congested core to housing on greenfield sites at margins with services follow. Suburbs occupied by new businesses and in-migrants. Low densi
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What is counterurbanisation?
A reaction to life in large cities. Dormitory settlements and others move homes and jobs to distant towns or rural areas. Teleworking from remote rural areas with some business following. Gov encourage through new towns and settlement expansion plan
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What brings about suburban intensification?
Rising densities brought about by extremely high land prices, physical and legal constraints on addition of suburbs and policies favouring brownfield development. Open spaces encroached and flats. Non- residential land use increases. Upgrade high st
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What triggers regeneration?
Most often by planners worried about demise of central and inner city areas. Work with developers to regenerate by renewing housing, improve services and generate employment opportunity
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How is re-imaging linked to regeneration?
Reimage with flagship schemes to reimage large urban tracts at same time as regeneration.
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What is the case study for urban functions, patterns and processes (characteristics of urban areas)?
Newcastle Upon Tyne (England) and Port Moresby (New Guinea)
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What is the populaton of Newcastle upon Tyne?
190,000 in 2001
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What was the Per capita GNI in the UK in 2005?
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What was the per capita GNI for Papua New Guinea in 2005?
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What is the location of Newcastle upon Tyne?
On the north bank of the Tyne estuary in north-east England
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What is the location of Port Moresby?
On the shores of the Gulf of Papua on the island of New Guinea
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What is the history of Newcastle?
First settlement from Roman times, developing as crossing point. During Middle Ages northern fortress against Scots. 1500s - coal mining. From 1800s also shipbuilding and heavy engineering. Old pillars removed, offices and retailing.
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What is the status of Newcastle currently?
High-order regional service centre
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What is a physical restriction on the development of Newcastle upon Tyne?
Though vital part of Tyneside conurbation is physically separated by the River Tyne
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What is the history of Port Moresby?
Settlement established by British in 1880s as port and efensive base, 1975 capital of newly independent state.
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How has Port Moresby developed since 1975?
Population has more than doubled and built up area has spread beyond the historical core
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What is the population of Port Moresby?
255,000 in 2000
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What is the form of Port Moresby?
Free-standing city of two parts 'old' and 'new' town, growth of built up area has engulfed villages - becoming centre of districts
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What impact has physical geography had on Newcastle?
Separates from Gateshead, downstream development prevented by the coast so expansion is now northwards and upstream
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What impact has physical geography had on Port Moresby?
Limited growth along the coast, ridge of steep hills has created break in the inland spread of the built-up area. Created a two part uran area
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What are the main functions and sources of employment in Newcastle?
Some manufacturing, commercial and professional services, retail, IT and recreational space
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What are the main functions and sources of employmen?
National administration, provision of goods and services, port activities, limited service industry and informal activities.
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Is it possible to discern a core area, a surrounding suburban ring and an urban-rural fringe in Newcastle?
In Newcastle yes - suburban ring is wide while the separation of urban and rural land uses within fringe clear cut.
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Is it possible to discern a core area, surrounding suburban ring and an urban-rural fringe in Port Moresby?
Historic nucleus and largely physically separate suburban ring. Some infilling of gap between two by informal settlement leaving the urban-rural fringe untidy.
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What are the main features of the core of Newcastle?
Occupied by CBD
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What are the main features of the core of Port Moresby?
Two cores - historic (port and tourist districts as well as best shops and modern offices) and modern commercial centre
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What are the main features of the suburban ring of Newcastle?
Much expansion during the twentieth century with character of residential areas varying depending on age of building. Densities decrease outwards from core
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What are the main features of the suburban rign of Port Morseby?
Suburban ring is low-rise comprising of many detached dwellings, many occupied by extended families
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What are the main features of the rural fringe of Newcastle?
Edges of built up area crisply defined, retailign complexes evident
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What are the main features of the rural fringe of Port Moresby?
Large tracts of informal settlement, little agriculture and some recreational space
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To what extent is there a spatial segregation of different land uses in Newcastle?
Clear segregation of commercial, industrial and residential uses
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To what extent is there a spatial segregation of different social and economic groups in Newcastle?
Strong segregation on the basis of socio-economic class emphasised by provision of council housing. Possible to see some sorting based on ethnicity
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To what extent is there a spatial segregation of different land uses in Port Moresby?
Fairly clear segregation of commercial, tourist, port, service and residential uses/ Waigani district contains public buildings and Parliament while nartional sports stadium and gov. ministries in Konedobu district.
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What processes are currently particularly active and where in Newcastle?
Suburbanisation (controlled by planners), suburbanisation intensification, counterurbanisation, regeneration (especially in areas formerly connected with shipping - Quayside), filtering and gentrification evident in inner suburban ring
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What processes are currently active and where in Port Moresby?
Agglomeration with informal settlements prompted by substantial rural-urban migration. Suburbanisation (inland and along coast), regeneration in historic core and exclusion on poor from residential areas and on basis tribal origins
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To what extent is there a spatial segregation of different social and ethnic groups in Port Moresby?
Australian and European residents in area of better housing with active segregation among natives regarding tribal origins. Poorest residents on belts of informal settlemnt are recent incomers from rural areas and there are veryhigh rates ofunem crim
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What has economic globalisation done?
Recently caused many MEDC cities to lose manufacturing base (deindustrialisation) and many LEDC cities in China etc are booming.
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What do cities such as Manchester and Newcastle have to do?
Find new functions in order to stave off onset of decay in post-industrial period
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What have physical processes such as silting of rivers done?
Threatened the livelihoods of many ports, especially true of those located at the head rather than the mouth of the estuary. May need new function
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What can halt urban growth?
Devastation caused by natural hazards such as hurricanes and earthquakes - though in most cases setbacks and decay is temperorary.
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What is an issue which develops over time regarding the buildings in an urban area?
Buildings need more and more money to keep them up to standard - at one point old buildings unable accomodate modern uses. Physical decay inherent.
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What are the reasons for the growth of urban areas?
Access to resources, opening up of new markets, local enterprise, TNC interest, inward investment, government support, high rates of natural increase, favourable image, net in-migration
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What are reasons for the decline of urban areas?
Natural disaster, change in physical geography, exhaustion of local resources, deindustrialisation, loss of investment confidence, political and civil unrest, poor image, net out-migration and fall in natural increase rate
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What are environmental issues caused by urban growth?
Hazards, erosion of rural space and more pressure on them, dereliction, rising densities, increased traffic volume, traffic congestion, air and water pollution, more noise/dust/visual pollution
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What are economic issues caused by urban growth?
Wider range of job oportunities, low unemployment, inflation of housing prices, growing demand services, rising cost of living and increased consumption of resources
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What are social issues caused by urban growth?
High rates of immigration and population growth, housing shortages, increased social mobility, widening gap between rich/poor (multiple deprivation), overstretched services, faster pace living, increased social malaise (terrorism,crime etc)
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What is an issue associated with urban decay?
The cycle of Poverty
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The Cycle of Poverty - POOR ACCOMODATION
Dwellings lack basic amenities
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The Cycle of Poverty - STRAIN (Ill health and psychological stress)
High infant mortality, work and school absenteeism, children in care, mental illness and suicide. Alternate - assault/vandalism
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The Cycle of Poverty - Poor education facilities
High teacher turnover, inadequate buildings
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The Cycle of Poverty
Lack of occupational skills
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The Cycle of Poverty - POVERTY
Free school dinners, possession orders and debts
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Cycle of urban decay
Declining job opportunities, decline in services, physical fabric and infrastructure deteriorate, more economically active move away, increasing decay then loss of investment cnfidence
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What is multiple deprivation?
Term signalling the factthat deprivation is usually a matter of lagging behind in number of related aspects of life such as employment, housing, services and health
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What is the case study for the issues associated by urban change (more to do with growth but -'in midst of growth there is decay')
Birmingham MEDC and Dhaka LEDC
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What is the popular image of Birmingham?
As a modern and progressive city, it is Uk's third largest city
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What is the history of Birmingham
First industrial city during Industrial Revolution but victim of global shift in manufacturing since second half 20th C.
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What is the function of Birmingham today?
80% of economic output in tertiary sector, major centre of banking, finance and insurance with tourism increasinglyy important
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What centre in Birmingham accounts for over 40% of UK conference and exhibition trade?
National Exhibition Centre
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How did Birmingham re-image tself?
Determination of urban managers, reliance of financial support of companies and of the media. Regeneration of core and inner ring to provide modern offices and shops
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What are the issues associated with urban growth in Birmingham?
Stress on city transport system, higher skilled jobs to commuters from West Midlands nad high rates of unemployment in inner-ring districts. In short, the benefits not distributed evenly.
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What are the issues for people living in areas of Birmingham which have not went through urban growth?
Inner ring has inadequate housing, poor services and poverty with many disaffected adn there is a strong polarisation between the extremes of rich adn pooor
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Where is Dhaka?
Capital city of Bangladesh, population 7 million
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Why have transnational companies (TNCs) been drawn to Dhaka?
Large supply of very cheap labour, involved in clothing or garment industry
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What is the rate of unemployment in Dhaka, despite manufacturing prominence?
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Why is there high unemployment in Dhaka?
High rate of population growth at 4% per annum due to fertility and rural-urban migration. Population growth outstrips new jobs - most people forced to find other ways of living in informal economy.
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What is the most common informal activity in Dhaka?
Driving of rickshaws, almost 500,000 people involved. Little public transport so are vital to keeping the city moving
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What are the negatives of life in Dhaka?
Rickshaws lead to congestion, 500,000 children work in informal sector for an average of 12p per day in vulnerable conditions and exposed to hazards such as traffic accidents, toxic fumes and sexual abue. Leads to health and developmnetal issues
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How do many people in Dhaka feel?
They are missing out on the economic success of their city, which as led to a growing middle class
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Why is urban decay not the correct word for the situation in Dhaka?
Things can only get better in the eyes of many people living there.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the size threshold of urban vary from ?


Depends on the country but is usually between 2000 and 10,000

Card 3


What can the term urban be used to describe?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the economical characteristics of an urban environment?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the characteristics of people in an urban environment?


Preview of the front of card 5
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