Rural Area notes OCR

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  • Created by: lara
  • Created on: 05-09-13 15:09
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Characteristics of a rural area
Physical Climate
factors - highland areas = sheep
- warm/sunny areas = fruit and vines
- flat land = arable
- steep slopes = sheep, aspect
- wet areas = cattle, rice
- dry areas = sheep
- lakes = reservoirs
- fertile soils = arable
- infertile soil = moorland/forest
- alkali soils = cereals
- hard rock = quarries
Economic distance ­ farming less intense (more pastoral) with distance from town as inputs more expensive
factors with distance
- lack of capital = pastoral
- good transport = cash crops (e.g. market gardening)
labour supply
- lack of labour = pastoral
- plenty of labour = market gardening
demand from consumers, industry
- many crops have bi-products, e.g. cotton = lint and oil
Social population type
factors - nomads keep animals not static crops
- some religions favour certain activities
- Fulani (northern Nigeria) measure their status and wealth in cattle
- The more educated tend to be more progressive
Historical Inertia
factors - Not easy to change farming type as large investment in equipment
- Where change is common, pastoral farming is common as investment is mobile
Political Planning
factors - Land using zones
- National parks
Land ownership

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Page 2

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Farm size (inheritance laws)
Government policies
- Quotas, subsidies e.g.…read more

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Social and economic issues with rural change
Improvements in transport
Key factors leading to growth and decline…read more

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Cause of rural change
Issues that result from change
Physical Economic Political
relief- building on unsuitable power- shortage, reliability, wealth inequality and
sites e.g. steep high cost deprivation
slope, drainage- water industry- lack of jobs or low age profile- dependency
shortage, pollution pay, migrant labour ratio, birth rates, social
vegetation- loss of habitats settlement- housing quality services
pollution- air, water, land, and quantity, cost, second migration- depopulation,
noise, visual homes cultural change
Services- lack of sufficient
schools, shops, clinics etc.…read more

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Problems associated with development and growth
Urban sprawl
some cities in the UK have a green belt preventing urban sprawl but places such as Swindon, the
potential for urban sprawl is greater since there is not planning legislation
need for more housing- pressure on rural areas for housing developments
between 1991 and 2001 a further 460,000 new homes were needed
increased demand for housing is generated by longer life expectancy, young people
leaving home earlier, families splitting up
large urban areas are no longer desirable…read more

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Service development
there are some well sited, well-landscaped rural developments
there are some incidences of other development
o some out of town shopping areas and some unregulated businesses like scrap
metal and caravan storage which can be unsightly and detrimental to the
Decline in rural services
Environmental issues…read more

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Management challenges
Issues…read more

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Mr A Gibson

The challenges rural areas face... An in depth look at rural areas in general. Lots of visuals to help with learning. Although for OCR, this works with any exam board.

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