Isomerism

Isomerism

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Structural Isomerism

Structural isomerism:
exitst when molecules are composed of the same number & type of atoms but these atoms are arranged in different ways.

Stereoisomerism:
the atoms making up the isomers are joined up in the same order but have different arrangement in space. 

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Chain Isomerism

Chain Isomerism:
The C skeletal can be rearranged differently, either as a straight chain or as a branched chain in different ways.
These ismoers ahve similar chemical properties but different physical properties because of the change in shape of the molecule.

 (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/N-pentane_isomerization.svg/500px-N-pentane_isomerization.svg.png)

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Positional Isomers

The skeleton & functional gropu can be the same, but the group could be attached to a different carbon atom.
This leads to different chemical & physical properties. 

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR0oB5TOJ-pTCUp7oR7zb-nos71aUcivTEqkYdNL2XXQ2RdQO0rug)

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Functional Group Isomers

The same atoms can be arranged into different functional groups, this leads to a difference in chemical properties.

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRrirtiDDqzwbrK4c3FB96Q-HTt_xiyM_3dwmJ5i7Cq0vs-d64w)

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E/Z isomerism

There must be a C=C (double bond) and each carbon must be attached to 2 different groups.

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRYoCxkP7S-FPWiaoEn7ALiO94NCh1qr9UaBZ5rl6im2QxUkc7H)

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