Tawhid: The belief that God is one, the oneness of God.
Akhirah: Life after death
Shahadah: The muslim declaration of faith (there is no God but Allah, Muhammad (pbuh) is his messenger)
Salah: Five daily prayers
Zakah: Donating 2.5% of annual savings to charity, obligatory to those who can. Distributes wealth more fairly.
Sawm: Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
Hajj: The greater pilgrimage, obligatory for those who can afford it and those who are physically able to do so.
Umrah: The lesser pilgrimage, not obligatory but recommended.
Ummah: Muslim brotherhood.