Interwar Years and Cold War

  • Created by: jingerb99
  • Created on: 25-10-18 17:51

Why did the Big Three disagree at the Paris Peace

-> France wanted Germany to be totally destroyed.
-> Britain wanted to be punished, but not completely destroyed because the Prime Minister (David Lloyd George) wanted to keep the British navy the best in the world.
-> USA did not want Germany to be destroyed, it wanted to make sure no war broke out again.

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How did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?

-> War guilt: Germany was blamed for starting the war.
-> Reparations: Germany was to pay the Allies £6.6 billion for damage caused during the war.
-> European borders: large areas of Germany were given to France and its other neighbours. Germany was never allowed to ally with Austria again. Rhineland was demilitarised.
-> Colonies: Germany's African colonies were given to Britain and France.
-> Armed forces:
     -> army restricted to 100,000 soldiers.
     -> conscription was banned.
     ->No tanks, submarines or planes.
     -> Only 6 battleships.
-> League of Nations: set up to promote world peace. Germany was not invited not to join until it had shown that it was a peaceful nation.

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How did the Treaty of Versailles affect Germany up

-> The Kapp Putsch: an attempted revolution to remove Ebert (the German leader) who had agreed to the Treaty.
-> The Ruhr: an industrial area in Western Germany that was raided by French and Belgian troops (they took raw goods and materials) because Germany fell behind on its reparation payments in 1922.
-> Hyperinflation: the German government decided to print extra banknotes, which caused hyperinflation.

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What was the League of Nations and what were its m

-> The League of Nations was a group of nations (Britain, France, Italy, Germany (1926 - 1933) and Japan) who together tried to promote world peace and stop any more wars from breaking out.
-> Main powers were:
    -> sitting down and discussing.
    -> economic sanctions.
    -> physical sanctions.

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Members of the League of Nations (1)

  • Abyssinia
  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Czechoslovakia
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Members of the League of Nations (2)

  • Denmark
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Guatemala
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hungary
  • India
  • Italy
  • Ireland
  • Iraq
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Members of the League of Nations (3)

  • Japan
  • Latvia
  • Liberia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Norway
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Persia (Iran)
  • Peru
  • Poland
  • Portugal
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Members of the League of Nations (4)

  • Romania
  • Siam (Thailand)
  • Soviet Union (Russia)
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela
  • Yugoslavia
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What made the League of Nations successful in the

-> They agreed on how to solve some disputes.

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What made the League of Nations unsuccessful in th

-> They didn't solve every dispute that was brought forward.
-> They didn't agree on many international agreements.

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How to answer an outline question

  • 1 summary sentence to answer the question.
  • 3 - 4 events in chronological order.
  • spend 5 minutes on it.
  • Use time connectives to help you.
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How to answer a 10 marker explain question

  • 2 PEEL/PEAL/PEAAL paragraphs with 2 pieces of explained evidence in each paragraph.
  • balanced answer with two different points.
  • spend 10-13 minutes on it.
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How did the Depression damage the League?

-> America lost money due to paying Europe some loans.
-> This led to America recalling the money lent to the European countries otherwise America would've caused a Depression.
-> Effects of the money being lent back to America:
     -> decreased industries.
     -> increased unemployment.
     -> decreased trades.
     -> no profits.

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Manchurian Crisis and how the League responded

Agressor = Japan
Victim = Manchuria, China

Japan invaded Manchuria and exploded a Japanese-owned railway as an excuse to invade.

The League responded by suggesting to Japan that they should leave immediately. However, Japan ignored the League and kept Manchuria in the end.

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Abyssinia Crisis and how the League responded

Aggressor: Italy
Victim: Abyssinia

Italy invaded Abyssinia.

The League didn't do much, but France allowed Italy to take over Abyssinia.

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How did aggressive nations damage the League?

-> League almost powerless by 1936.
-> aggressive leaders, especially Hitler, had learnt that they could get away with anything.

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Why did the League of Nations fail by 1937?

-> Aggression
-> Depression
-> Failure to disarm

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What were Hitler's foreign policy aims?

-> destroying communism.
     -> communism was believed to be a disease by Hitler.
     -> communists were persecuted by him.
     -> USSR and Germany were likely to clash due to the fact that the USSR was communist.

-> racial theory and Lebensraum.
     -> Germans were seen superior.
          -> Aryans
     -> Jews, slavs and non-german races seen as inferior.
     -> Germany was 'destined' to create an empire that would rule over inferior people and give         Germans the 'Lebensraum' or living space they need.

-> militarism
     -> Hitler said that war was regarded as a measure of the health and strength of a nation.
     -> still debated by historians whether Hitler intended to go to war or not.
     -> Hitler was preparing Germany for conflict not long after the Nazis came to power.

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What did Hitler do to achieve these aims?

  • boost his prestige by getting people to vote for joining Hitler Germany, fulfilling the racial theory and Lebensraum aim.
  • started rearming in 1933 and getting thousands of unemployed workers to join the army, fulfilling the militarism aim.
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What did Hitler do to reverse the Treaty of Versai

  • stopped paying reparations.
  • rearming - bigger German army.
  • remilitarised Rhineland.
  • allied with Austria.
  • reinvaded Sudetenland.
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Why did Chamberlain follow the policy of appeaseme

  • Hitler had a persuasive point over the Treaty of Versailles, saying that some terms were harsh on Germany.
  • America won't help due to the fact that the country isolated itself from Europe's problems.
  • He wasn't really in the best position.
  • France and Britain hadn't agreed on how to treat Germany.
  • Chamberlain attempted to get Mussolini on his side, but it backfired.
  • He was worried about Stalin and communism as Hitler hated communism.
  • Nobody disarmed when Hitler wanted everyone to disarm.
  • Chamberlain didn't think Hitlern was serious.
  • Chamberlain was questioning whether Hitler was really that bad.
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What shows that appeasement was a good idea?

  • In 1938, before the Munich Crisis, Britain only had 2 army divisions ready to fight in a war, compared to 80 in Germany. By Augusy 1939, Britain had 47 and  Germany had 130.
  • Before Chamberlain officially became Prime Minister (1935-7), he started a major rearmament program to prepare Britain for war.
  • Between 1938 and 1939, Britain more than doubled the number of aircraft that it had. This was significant because aircraft was aircraft was such an important weapon.
  • In september 1938, after the Sudetenland, a poll showed that many Britons didn't trust Hitler.
  • Benes was prepared to fight.
  • Chamberlain was in regular contact with Daladier.
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What shows that appeasement was a bad idea?

  • In 1938, before the Munich Crisis, Britain only had 2 army divisions ready to fight in a war, compared to 80 in Germany. By Augusy 1939, Britain had 47 and  Germany had 130.
  • The Sudetenland was an industrial region that helped Hitler to build more weapons.
  • Each time Hitler took over a new country, he became  stronger.
  • Appeasement scared the USSR into signing the Nazi-Soviet Pact because they were aware that Chamberlain hated communism.
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What is communism?

  • factories/businesses owned by the state (the whole country)
  • produce is shared out equally
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What is capitalism?

  • factories/businesses owned by individuals.
  • they decide how much to pay their workers and keep the rest.
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Why did the USA and USSR argue?

  • The USA wanted Germany back on its feet but the USSR wanted to crush Germany.
  • The USA wanted to stop communism spreading but the USSR wanted to keep communism.
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Why did the USA and USSR fall out at Potsdam?

-> disagreed over Germany
     -> Russia wanted to cripple Germany and get revenge.
     -> USA and Britain wanted to strengthen Germany.

-> Russia wanted Germany to be communist.
     -> America didn't want Russia to get too strong.

-> Truman told Stalin that the US had an atomic bomb.

-> no longer have the common enemy of Germany and Hitler.

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What was Soviet Expansion?

Soviet Expansion was where the USSR tried to expand communism into Eastern European countries.

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Why did Soviet Expansion scare the USA?

The US were worried that communism was going to spread to other countries and then get to the US.

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Why did the Truman Doctrine scare the USSR?

  • USA was giving money to countries that were being threatened with communism.
  • if a country was being taken over by communism, America would give money to people fighting.
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Why did the Marshall Aid scare the USSR?

  • Truman thought that the only way to stop communism was that people who didn't have much money that, when given money, would keep it all to themselves.
  • Truman gave $17 billion to European countries
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Why did Cominform scare the US?

  • Stalin wanted to control all Eastern European countries.
  • Chucked Marshall Tito and Yugoslavia out of Cominform because they didn't do what Stalin said.
  • Banned all Cominform countries from accepting Marshall Aid.
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Why did Stalin blockade Berlin?

  • Stalin hoped Berlin would be an America-free zone.
  • Concerned that America would do something wrong and affect Berlin as a whole.
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What was the impact of the Berlin Blockade?

  • People couldn't get in or out of Berlin.
  • If the blockade was destroyed, then there would be a war.
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What was the impact of the Airlift?

  • People got more food.
  • Supplies were given.
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