Cold War Notes

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Miriam Schechter
How did the Cold War Develop? 1943-56
The Origins of the cold war
The Cold War was a period in superpower relations between 1945 and 1991 when there was deep mistrust
between the major capitalist (USA) country and the major communist (USSR) country. The hostility never
expressed itself in fighting but each country attacked each other with propaganda and non-cooperation.
Main Features
To find military developments
Used spy planes (E.g. American U2 plane could fly high enough to avoid be shot down)
Ensured that national public opinion supported government
USSR success in sport illustrated superiority
Arms Race
Sides wanted more weapons & technology than the other
By 1960s, both sides had enough weapons to destroy the Earth several times over, but Mutually
Assured Destruction (MAD) actually acted as a deterrent against war but didn't stop further
Space Race
First it was to launch the first satellite
First man in space
First man on the moon
Effective propaganda for both sides
Loans and Aid
Competed to provide loans and aid to less developed and often newly independent states, so that they
could win their support
Why did the Cold War develop in the 1940s?
Long term mistrust
Had existed before WW2, USA suspicious since communist revolution in 1917
Ideological extremes: communism & capitalism
Stalin felt the USA had deliberately waited before invading Europe & defeating Germany in order to let
the Nazis weaken the USSR as much as they could
After WW2
West afraid of spread of communism, Truman in particular felt the need for containment
Stalin's desire to increase Soviet sphere of influence in the countries occupied by the USSR at the end of
WW2, so to have a buffer zone between the USSR and Germany
Peace Conferences
Highlighted differences that are boiling up
USSR continued to build up satellite states in Eastern Europe
Communist allies in power
Iron Curtain
Churchill's speech demonstrates division of Europe
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
Contained threat of communism in Western Europe
Berlin Blockade
Cements problem
Causes NATO formation
All of this led to mistrust & suspicion of the other side which was nurtured by propaganda used by the
two governments. This was added to by the start of the Nuclear Arms Race when the USSR developed
the Atom Bomb in 1949

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The Teheran Conference November1943
First conference of the Big Three ­ Russia, USA, Britain - Stalin, FDR, Churchill
Roosevelt was keen to improve relations between the allies, collectively named as the Grand Alliance
Stalin got most of what he wanted - Roosevelt unwell & sided with Stalin instead of Churchill anyway
Main Agreements
Britain and USA agreed to open up a second front by invading France in May 1944
USSR was to wage war against Japan once Germany was defeated
United Nations set…read more

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Who was to blame for the Cold War?
Cold, harsh and determined to spread the evil of communism as far as possible
Refused to allow free elections
Set up Soviet controlled communist governments in E. Europe
However this ignores Soviet concerns:
Twice Russia had been invaded and suffered enormous losses of people
Goal of Soviet expansion in E.…read more

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The early cold War 1945-47
Why did the Soviet Union expand?
Memory of what happened 1918-39
Most countries had been hostile to the USSR during the interwar year
Poland signed a non-aggressive pact with France during WW2
Hungary & Romania fought with Germany against the USSR
Percentages Deal
Stalin and Churchill had made a percentages deal after the war
It gave Britain and the USSR this:
Romania: USSR 90% Others 10% Greece: USSR 10% GB 90%
Yugoslavia: USSR 50% GB 50% Hungary: USSR 50% GB…read more

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USA's Loans and Aid
The Truman Doctrine
March 1947 Truman began the policy of containment because:
- Truman believed that the USSR was trying to spread communism
- The USA had the atom bomb and wanted to use it together with their superior economic
strength, to put pressure on the USSR against further expansion
- Events in Greece
- At Yalta - agreed that Britain would have influence in Greece, which had a civil war since 1944.…read more

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The Berlin airlift 1948-49
Why was there a crisis in Berlin?
Long term causes Short term causes
Communist took over Eastern zone, try to take over January UK and US zones merged into one economic
Berlin but socialist majority resisted successfully unit called the Bizone
West wanted to speed up economic recovery. USSR March Soviet representatives walked out of the Allied
wanted to keep Germany weak, refused East/West Control Commission complaining W. Powers had
trading made it unworkable.…read more

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North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
April 1949
Berlin convinced West they needed military alliance to ensure security
Armed attack against one country = armed attack against them all
Guarantee against USSR expansion into W.…read more

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The Hungarian uprising 1956
Why did the Hungarian Uprising happen?
Hungary after WW2
Soviet troops continued to occupy Hungary even thought an Allied Control Commission was set up
Agreed to USSR reparations of $300 million
Elections in November 1945 ­ Smallholders' Party won 57%, Hungarian communist party 17%
Head of occupying Soviet forces, Marshal Voroshilov refused the Smallholders' Party to establish
government, and established a coalition government
Soviet Control
Feb 1947, some leaders of Smallholders' Party and National Peasant Party arrested and others fled
Laszlo…read more

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Cold War Crises 1957-69
Long term causes Short term causes
Soviet Union wanted to remove allies from West 20,000 a month leaving in 1961
Berlin Caused a huge drain on skilled workers
1949-61 4 million E. Germans fled to West through Kennedy re-asserted the Truman Doctrine in his
Berlin. USSR wanted to plug the gap. inauguration speech in 1961, but Khrushchev
thought Kennedy was weak because of the Bay of
Pigs incident
People left because of poor living standards & pay in E.…read more

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The Arms Race
1953 USA and USSR had hydrogen bombs
March 1954 USA tested the biggest ever hydrogen bomb
Churchill described it as a `balance of terror'
1957 Sputnik was launched ­ could orbit Earth in one and a half hours (military threat to USA)
1957-59 USA increased missile spending by 20% and Eisenhower founded NASA
Superpowers decreased their conventional weapons
Why was there a crisis?
America's involvement in Cuba Pre 1959
1898 USA helped Cuba gain independence from Spain
In return they built…read more



do you have anything this helpful for germany paper? such good notes

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